Spatial Development Framework

 

 

 

 

Pixley ka Seme Local Municipality


Spatial Development Framework: Final Report
 

ACRONYMS

CPI Central Place Index

DFA Development Facilitation Act

DM District Municipality

GGP Gross Geographic Product

GSDM Gert Sibande District Municipality

IDP Integrated Development Plan

LM Local Municipality

LUMS Land Use Management Systems

MDC Maputo Development Corridor

MISF Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Development Framework

MSA Municipal Structures Act

NSDI National Spatial Development Initiative

NSDP National Spatial Development Perspective

PGDS Provincial Growth and Development Strategy

PRAC Provincial Rural Administration Centre

RSC Rural Service Centre

RSS Rural Service System

SDF Spatial Development Framework

SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment

SERC Small Emerging Rural Centre

SMME Small Medium Macro Enterprises

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES 6
LIST OF FIGURES 6
LIST OF MAPS 6
1. INTRODUCTION 7
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT 7
1.2 NEED FOR THE PROJECT 7
1.3 WHAT IS A SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK? 7
1.4 HOW IS THE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TO BE USED? 8
1.5 HOW DOES THE SDF LINK TO THE IDP 9
1.6 PLANNING PROCESS 12
1.7 PARTICIPATION AND CONSULTATION 15
1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 15
2. OVERVIEW OF LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES 17
2.1 INTRODUCTION 17
2.2 SUMMARY OF RELEVANT LEGISLATION 18
2.3 SUMMARY OF RELEVANT GUIDELINES, POLICIES AND STRATEGIES 20
2.4 KEY FINDINGS 25
3. MUNICIPAL OVERVIEW 28
3.1 LOCALITY 28
3.2 AREA 28
3.3 BOUNDARIES AND NEIGHBOURS 28
3.4 KEY FEATURES 28
3.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 29
3.6 SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS 32
3.7 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 33
3.8 ACCESS TO SERVICES 35
4. REGIONAL OVERVIEW 38
4.1 MSUKALIGWA LOCAL MUNICIPALITY 38
4.2 LEKWA LOCAL MUNICIPALITY 38
4.3 THABO MOFUTSANYANE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY 39
4.4 AMAJUBA DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY 39
4.5 ZULULAND DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY 39
4.6 MKHONDO LOCAL MUNICIPALITY 40
5. ANALYSIS OF CURRENT SPATIAL PATTERN 41
5.1 INTRODUCTION 41
5.2 URBAN COMPOSITION 41
5.3 RURAL LAND USE 42
5.4 TRANSPORT NETWORK 47
5.5 UTILITIES 48
5.6 SOCIAL FACILITIES 50
5.7 ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 50
5.8 KEY FINDINGS 50
6. VISION AND MISSION 52
6.1 MUNICIPAL VISION AND MISSION 52
6.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SDF 52
6.3 KEY INDICATORS 52
7. DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES 54
7.1 INTRODUCTION 54
7.2 CONCENTRATION 55
7.3 CONNECTIVITY 56
7.4 CONSERVATION 56
7.5 SUMMARY 57
8. SPATIAL MODEL 58
8.1 NEED FOR A MODEL 58
8.2 ALTERNATIVE MODELS 58
8.3 SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE MODEL 66
8.4 CUSTOMISING THE MODEL 67
8.5 APPLICATION OF THE MODEL AT A DISTRICT LEVEL 69
9. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 73
9.1 INTRODUCTION 73
9.2 REVIEW OF PROJECT COMPONENTS AND PROCESS 73
9.3 DISTRICT SDF – SUMMARY 75
9.4 LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 89
9.5 KEY INTERVENTIONS 96
9.6 ALIGNMENT 99
9.7 CONCLUSION 102
10. LAND USE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 104
10.1 WHAT IS A LUMS? 104
10.2 WHAT ARE THE AIMS OF A LUMS? 104
10.3 LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES 106
10.4 HOW DO YOU PREPARE A LUMS? 108
10.5 HOW DO YOU GET APPROVAL FOR A LUMS? 111
10.6 ROLE OF LOCAL MUNICIPALITY IN RESPECT OF LUMS 111
10.7 POINTS OF DEPARTURE FROM THE SDF 113
10.8 CONCLUSION 114
11. CONCLUSION 115
REFERENCES 117
APPENDIX 1: DIAGRAMS 120
APPENDIX 2: MAPS 121
APPENDIX 3: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 122
OVERVIEW OF RELEVANT STUDIES 122
PURPOSE OF REVIEW 122
LIST OF DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 122

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Population 32
Table 2: Urban-Rural Split 32
Table 3: Education 33
Table 4: Gender 33
Table 5: Working Age 33
Table 6: Employment 34
Table 7: Labour Force by Sector 34
Table 8: Household Income 35
Table 9: Water Supply 35
Table 10: Refuse Disposal 36
Table 11: Sanitation 36
Table 12: Energy Supply 36
Table 13: Telecommunications 37
Table 14: Dwelling Type 37
Table 15: Environmental Opportunities and Constraints 43
Table 16: Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework Ranked Major Urban Centres 76
Table 17: Classification of Hubs 81
Table 18: Possible Hub Facilities 82
Table 19: Legislative Alignment 99
Table 20: Policy Framework 100
Table 21: Spatial Framework 102
Table 22: LUMS Priority Areas 114

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Relationship between the SDF, IDP and other Municipal Plans 11
Figure 2: Key Informants of the SDF 12
Figure 3: Planning Process 14
Figure 4: Development Principles 55
Figure 5: City of eThekwini Structuring Elements 60
Figure 6: The Rural Service System (RSS) Model 65
Figure 7: Components of the Spatial Development Framework illustrated conceptually 68
Figure 8: Process components informing the Spatial Development Framework 74
Figure 9: The legislative framework informing LUMS. 108

LIST OF MAPS

Map 1: Locality 41
Map 2: Administrative Boundaries 41
Map 3: Land Use 41
Map 4: Land Cover and Settlement Hierarchy 41
Map 5: Conceptual Environmental Analysis 42
Map 6: Conservation/ Biodiversity 44
Map 7: Hydrology 45
Map 8: Soil Potential 45
Map 9: Transport Network 47
Map 10: Access to Services 48
Map 11: Educational Facilities 50
Map 12: Health Facilities 50
Map 13: Social Facilities 50


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT

• In response to a requirement for all municipalities to prepare Spatial Development Frameworks for their areas of jurisdiction as part of their Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), SiVEST SA was duly appointed by the Gert Sibande District Municipality to prepare Spatial Development Frameworks for the District and its seven local municipalities.


1.2 NEED FOR THE PROJECT

• According to the Municipal Systems Act (MSA) all municipalities are obliged to prepare Integrated Development Plans (IDPs). In terms of the core components of an integrated development plan as per section 26 of the MSA, an integrated development plan must reflect, inter alia, ‘a spatial development framework which must include the provision of basic guidelines for a land use management system for the municipality’.

• The SDF is a therefore a spatial representation of the municipality’s vision and is to be used to guide the location of development as envisaged in the IDP.


1.3 WHAT IS A SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK?

• A Spatial Development Framework (SDF) is a plan that seeks to guide overall spatial distribution of current and future desirable land uses within a municipality, in order to give physical effect to the vision, goals and objectives of the municipal IDP.

• It is a spatial representation of the creation of integrated and habitable urban and rural areas and provides general direction to guide decision-making and action over a multi-year period.

• The intention of a SDF is to provide an appropriate land-use management system. The SDF thereby informs development decisions and creates a framework for investment confidence that facilitates both public and private spending.

• A SDF is strategic and ‘indicative’ in nature and is prepared at a broad scale. While the SDF is indicative of where it wants to enforce certain types of land uses, it is not prescriptive with regard to the way each and every piece of land is used. There is no need for an area-covering determination of land use zones in a SDF.

• An SDF should include:

 Spatial development trends and issues;
 Localised spatial development principles and includes specific strategic guidelines for spatial restructuring and spatial integration, and a spatial representation of all development objectives and strategies with a spatial dimension;
 The location of all capital projects;
 A strategic environmental assessment;
 Guidelines for Land Use Management;
 Broad policy intentions for land use and development;
 Land reform issues and related projects or project components; and
 Maps to inform land management and investment decisions and which indicate spatial objectives and strategies.

• As the SDF is a spatial representation of a desired outcome, it is represented visually through maps. It is important that the maps inform land management and investment decisions and therefore, must indicate precisely:

 Preferential and focal areas for certain types of land use;
 Areas for which certain types of land use are excluded; and
 The location of IDP projects (to provide evidence of compliance of the IDP with the spatial objectives and strategies reflected in the map).

• The SDF is supposed to form a legally binding component of the IDP. Therefore the SDF needs to be specific and precise in cases where it wants to enforce or to prevent certain types of land use. It does not operate in isolation from other planning initiatives initiated by the municipality.

• In sum, the Spatial Development Framework is ‘indicative’ of the broad use of land and the directions of future development. It reflects land uses such as major transport routes, future transport links, environmentally important areas and key potentials and constraints. A Planning Scheme or Land Use Management Scheme (LUMS) will then be used to flesh out the broad detail shown in such a framework.


1.4 HOW IS THE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK TO BE USED?

• An Integrated Development Plan (IDP), is the principal strategic planning instrument which guides and informs all planning and development, and all decisions with regard to planning, management and development, in the municipality (Section 35 of the Municipal Systems Act, 32 of 2000) (hereafter referred to as the MSA). As an integral part of an IDP, an SDF is a visual tool to guide planning and development as underpinned in the IDP of a municipality. The SDF is the framework to guide development as envisaged in the IDP.

• The purpose, and therefore intended use, of a SDF is to guide all decisions of a municipality relating to the use, development and planning of land and should guide and inform:

 Direction of growth
 Major movement routes
 Special development areas for targeted management to redress past imbalances
 Conservation of both natural and built environment
 Areas in which particular types of land use should be encouraged or discouraged
 Areas in which the intensity of land development could either be increased or reduced

• As the SDF provides a broad framework for land use planning, it must be used to guide the municipality for the management of land and facilitate the land management process.

• A SDF must therefore ensure that public and private sector money and activities are located in areas that can best:

 Promote economic generation potential
 Maximise opportunities for the poor
 Promote accessibility
 Minimise the cost of physical expansion
 Ensure that people are well located
 Promote a sustainable environment

• According to the MSA, the IDP, of which the SDF forms a part, forms the policy framework and general basis on which annual budgets must be based (Sec 25 (1)(c)). The municipal council is politically accountable for deciding and conducting its affairs in line with the approved IDP. The IDP also serves as a means of performance management.

• Therefore, the SDF is a legal framework, which guides development in the municipal area, and thus needs to be as accurate as possible with respect to the information presented for guidance and decision-making.

1.5 HOW DOES THE SDF LINK TO THE IDP

• Integrated development planning is seen as a tool for developmental local government. It is a mechanism to restructure our cities, towns and rural areas, eradicating the development legacy of the past. One of the means through which integrated development planning intends to achieve this is through the formulation of a spatial development framework that provides a spatial overview of planned public and private sector investment.

• The SDF is a spatial representation of the vision and is a primary component of the annually reviewed IDP. The SDF is an integrated part of the IDP, the formulation of which forms part of the integration phase in the preparation of the IDP. In terms of the core components of an integrated development plan as per section 26 of the MSA, an integrated development plan must reflect, inter alia, ‘a spatial development framework which must include the provision of basic guidelines for a land use management system for the municipality’. The SDF, being an integrated plan, is to be compiled on the basis of the project proposals and the localised strategic guidelines of the IDP. The integration of projects and programmes ensures consistency in regard to cross-cutting aspects such as financial feasibility, spatial effect, economic, social and environmental impacts.

• The diagram below indicates the relationship between the SDF, IDP and other plans to be formulated by the municipality, informed by the MSA.



Figure 1: Relationship between the SDF, IDP and other Municipal Plans


The following diagram shows the key informants of the SDF and how it is informed by the vision, goals and objective of the IDP.


Figure 2: Key Informants of the SDF



1.6 PLANNING PROCESS

• The status quo analyses were chiefly informed by the IDP (Revision) documents which were obtained from the relevant local authorities and supplemented by any other existing documents such as structure plans, old SDFs and LDOs.

• The scope and budget of the project did not make provision for primary research to be undertaken, and hence, all assessments have been based on existing / secondary research.

• Following the local status quo analyses, the District status quo analysis was undertaken which was dually informed by the local analysis process as well as the District IDP. Where additional regional documents and information was available such was also considered and incorporated where relevant.

• Subsequent, the District’s vision and mission were interpreted, a spatial model was compiled and development principles were defined which culminated in the formulation of the Gert Sibande DM draft SDF.

• As a next step this draft SDF was superimposed on each local area to serve as a platform for discussion and processing with the relevant LM during a one-on-one workshop. The LM workshops were held between the consulting team and the relevant local municipality (officials and / or councillors) which enabled good communication and sharing of information.

• Following the workshops draft Local SDFs were compiled.

• After that the local SDFs were applied at the district level to update the DM SDF and achieve uniformity between the two levels of governance.



Figure 3: Planning Process


1.7 PARTICIPATION AND CONSULTATION


• PSC meetings
• Workshops
• Client meetings
• Others

1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT

This report is structured as follows:

Section 1: Introduction
in which the background to the project is explained and the concept and contents of a spatial development framework are examined

Section 2: Municipal Overview
in which a brief overview of the municipalities key features are presented

Section 3: Regional Overview
in which the influence of the neighbouring municipalities and economic hubs on Gert Sibande District Municipalities is discussed


Section 4: Overview of Legislation and Guidelines
in which legislation and guidelines pertaining to the preparation of spatial development frameworks are outlined


Section 5: Overview of Relevant Studies
in which previous studies that present findings of relevance to the preparation of the spatial development framework are reviewed

Section 6: Analysis of Current Spatial Pattern
in which the spatial pattern of the municipality is examined and understood

Section 7: Vision and Mission
in which the vision and mission of the municipality as contained in its IDP are examined and the spatial implications of them understood

Section 8: Development Principles
in which theoretical development principles that should be met if good spatial form is to be acquired are outlined

Section 9: Spatial Model
in which alternative spatial models are examined and one appropriate to the municipality is selected

Section 10: Spatial Development Framework
in which an ideal spatial form for the municipality is proposed

Section 11: Land Use Management Systems
in which the points of departure from the spatial development framework towards the preparation of a LUMS are outlined

Section 12: Conclusion
in which the process followed in the preparation of the spatial development framework and the final product are summarised and a way forward for the municipality is proposed


2. OVERVIEW OF LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES

2.1 INTRODUCTION

• While the very nature of ‘integrated’ planning requires the plan to take into consideration all sectors of development such as transport, housing, environment and land reform, this section will highlight the legislation and policy guidelines formulated with the specific intent to guide integrated development planning.

• A product of the integrated development planning process is an integrated development plan (IDP). A key component of this IDP is the preparation of a Spatial Development Framework (SDF) with a Land Use Management System (LUMS) that can be applied to the whole municipality. There is however, a need to bridge the gap in terms of legislation between integrated development plans and the detailed requirements of land use management applies at municipal level.

• There is no specific legislation or regulations detailing this in Mpumalanga at the time of writing. The preparation of Spatial Development Frameworks is guided by the MSA regulations and there is no specific legislation or regulations pertaining to the preparation of a LUMS (this will be dealt with in greater detail under section 10).

• However, the Mpumalanga Provincial Government has published their “Provincial Growth and Development Strategy (PGDS) for 2004 – 2014” that set the course for growth and development in the province in line with it vision of “Reconstruction, development and sustainable growth; with employment and redistribution”. The provincial PGDS has been aligned with the National Spatial Development Perspective (NSDP) and deals with six priority areas of intervention.

• Nationally, this gap is being filled to an extent by the draft white paper on spatial planning and the national land use bill (2001), which seeks to establish land use planning as a key component of Integrated Development Plans. The national land use bill (will) establish the framework to guide spatial planning, land use management and land development throughout the republic and requires all municipalities to prepare Land Use Schemes to regulate the use and development of land.

• In terms of approval, IDPs (of which the SDF is an integral part) have to be approved by the municipal councils only. The approved IDP is to be submitted to the MEC for local government who may request the municipality to amend the plan if it does not comply with legal requirements or development plans or strategies of other municipalities or spheres of government. The approved spatial development framework (with the IDP) is then a legally binding document for all land use management decisions. The municipal council is then politically accountable for deciding and conducting its affairs in line with the IDP, and, the IDP also serves as a means of performance management.

2.2 SUMMARY OF RELEVANT LEGISLATION

• The key legislation in terms of the preparation of IDPs is the Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000) (MSA). Section 26 of the MSA obligates all municipalities to prepare an IDP (which must include land use management as part of its spatial development framework) as the primary and overriding management tool. In terms of Section 26 of the MSA, core components of integrated development plans, an integrated development plan must reflect:

 The municipal council’s vision for the long term development of the municipality with special emphasis on the municipality’s most critical development and internal transformation needs;
 An assessment of the existing level of development in the municipality, which must include an identification of communities which for not have access to basic municipal services;
 The council’s development priorities and objectives for its elected term, including its local economic development aims and its internal transformation needs;
 The council’s development strategies which must be aligned with any national or provincial sectoral plans and planning requirements binding on the municipality in terms of legislation;
 A spatial development framework which must include the provision of basic guidelines for a land use management system for the municipality;
 The council’s operational strategies;
 Applicable disaster management plans;
 A financial plan, which must include a budget projection for at least the next three years; and
 The key performance indicators and performance targets determined in terms of section 41 (of the Act).

• As such, there is a legal obligation for municipalities to prepare a spatial development framework in terms of section 26 of the MSA. The preparation of a SDF is guided by the Municipal Systems Act Regulations which states that a spatial development framework reflected in a municipality’s integrated development plan must:

 Give effect to the principles contained in chapter 1 of the Development Facilitation Act 1995 (Act No. 67 of 1995);
 Set out objectives that reflect the desired spatial form of the municipality;
 Contain strategies and policies regarding the manner in which to achieve the objectives referred to in paragraph (b), which strategies and policies must:

 Indicate desired patterns of land use within the municipality;
 Address the spatial reconstruction of the municipality; and
 Provide strategic guidance in respect of the location and nature of development within the municipality.

 Set out basic guidelines for a land use management system in the municipality;
 Set out a capital investment framework for the municipality’s development programs;
 Contain a strategic assessment of the environmental impact of the spatial development framework;
 Identify programs and projects for the development of land within the municipality;
 Be aligned with the spatial development frameworks reflected in the integrated development plans of neighbouring municipalities; and
 Provide a visual representation of the desired spatial form of the municipality, which representation:

 Must indicate where public and private land development and infrastructure investment should take place;
 Must indicate desired or undesired utilisation of space in a particular area;
 May delineate the urban edge;
 Must identify areas where strategic intervention is required; and
 Must indicate areas where priority spending is required’.

• Additional sections of the MSA to note include:

 In terms of section 24, the municipality must align its planning with the development plans and strategies of other affected municipalities and organs of state to give effect to the principles of co-operative governance contained in section 41 of the Constitution.
 Section 35 (2) of the MSA states ‘a spatial development framework contained in an integrated development plan prevails over a plan as defined in section 1 of the Physical Planning Act, 1991 (Act No. 125 of 1991)’.
 The respective level of detail between the local municipality and district municipality SDFs is not clarified in the MSA or the regulations.

• As an integral component of the IDP, the SDF must also adhere to the requirements of the Local Government: Municipal Planning and Performance Management Regulations, 2001 (Government Notice 22605, 24 August 2001). In summary, the SDF must:



 Give effect to the Chapter 1 development principles of the Development Facilitation Act (DFA) (Act 67 of 1995);
 Set out objectives that reflect the desired spatial form of the city;
 Contain strategies and policies regarding the manner in which to achieve the objectives;
 Set out basic guidelines for a land use management system;
 Set out a Capital Investment Framework for the municipality’s development programs;
 Contain a strategic assessment of the environmental impact of the Spatial Development Framework;
 Identify programs and projects for the development of land within the municipality; and
 Provide a visual representation of the desired spatial form of the municipality, including:

 Identification of where public and private land development and infrastructure investments should take place;
 Delineation of the urban edge if feasible;
 Strategic interventions; and
 Priority spending areas.


2.3 SUMMARY OF RELEVANT GUIDELINES, POLICIES AND STRATEGIES

• The national land use bill and white paper on spatial planning and land use management provide guidelines on spatial development.


2.3.1 WHITE PAPER ON SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT

• In terms of the White Paper on Spatial Planning and Land Use Management, a spatial development framework must guide and inform the following:

 Directions of growth
 Major movement routes
 Special development areas for targeted management to redress past imbalances
 Conservation of both the built and natural environment
 Areas in which particular types of land use should be encouraged and others discouraged
 Areas in which the intensity of land development could either be increased or reduced



• The white paper states the primary purpose of the spatial development framework is to represent the spatial development goals of a local authority that result from an integrated consideration and sifting of the spatial implications of different sectoral issues. The spatial development framework should not attempt to be comprehensive. It should take the form of a broad framework that identifies minimum public actions necessary to achieve the direction of the plan. It must have sufficient clarity to guide decision makers in respect of development applications. It should describe the existing and desired future spatial patterns that provide for integrated, efficient and sustainable settlements. In this regard, the spatial development framework should:

 Only be a strategic, indicative and flexible forward planning tool to guide planning and decisions on land development
 Develop an argument or approach to the development of the area of jurisdiction which is clear enough to allow decision-makers to deal with the unexpected (e.g. applications from private sector)
 Develop a spatial logic that guides private sector investment. This logic primarily relates to establishing a clear hierarchy of accessibility;
 Ensure the social, economic and environmental sustainability of the area;
 Establishes priorities in terms of public sector development and investment, and
 Identify spatial priorities and places where public-private partnerships are a possibility.


2.3.2 THE NATIONAL LAND USE BILL (21 JUNE 2002)

• In terms of the Bill, a municipality has to prepare a municipal SDF. In terms of the definition, this is the same SDF referred to in chapter 5 of the MSA.

• In terms of the Bill, the SDF must:

 Give effect to directive principles
 Be consistent with the national land use framework
 Be consistent with the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy of the province.
 Be consistent with any applicable national and provincial legislation on environmental management
 Give effect to any national and provincial plans and planning legislation.




 A SDF must further reflect:

 A status quo on land use including any spatial dysfunctionality.
 A framework reflecting the desired spatial growth patterns.
 A multi-sector based spatial plan to achieve the desired spatial goals including:

 Correction of past spatial imbalances and the integration of disadvantaged persons / categories of persons;
 Settlement linkages with respect to appropriate transport routes; and
 Vacant land analysis which should include issues such as strategically located vacant land, ownership of such land, current zoning, value, surrounding land uses, geotechnical conditions, most suitable use.

 A multi-sector resource plan for the implementation of the SDF.

• The Bill does not refer to cross-border (District Municipality-District Municipality, province-province) alignment of SDFs nor does it make reference to the respective responsibilities of the SDF at local and district levels. The bill does however state those local municipalities within a district municipality must align their respective SDFs with one another.


2.3.3 MPUMALANGA PROVINCIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (2004 – 2014)

• An analysis of the Mpumalanga province in respect of its population profile and economy has alluded to the identification of the following key challenges and opportunities:

 Economic Development
 Development Infrastructure
 Social Development
 Sustainable environmental Development
 Good Governance
 Human Resource Development

• Some of the key issues pertaining to the above are described in more detail hereunder.

2.3.3(a) Economic Development

• The dominant economic sectors, in terms of GGP, in the province are highly capital intensive but only represent a small proportion of the employed.

• The inability of the Province to provide formal employment has resulted in an increase in the number of people that resort to the informal economy.

• The dominant manufacturing industries are refined petroleum products, chemicals, rubber and plastic. This sector is very capital intensive and only provides 11,2 % of the jobs in the province. A key policy challenge is to further downstream beneficiation of dominant sectors.

• More than 70% of the country’s energy is produced in Mpumalanga but in recent years the sector has shed 6500 jobs.

• The mining sector is relatively capital intensive and accounts for 20 % of the provincial output but only provides 8 % of the jobs.

• Mpumalanga hosts the 3rd most foreign tourists in the country. However, the share of the Gert Sibande District herein is relatively small.

• The wholesale and retail sector contributes 8,2 % to the provincial output and employs 14%.

• The fastest growing sectors in the province are the financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

• Agriculture activities provide jobs far in excess of their contributions to the Provincial GGP.

• Four local municipalities dominate gross value added in Mpumalanga and produce more than 70% of the provincial GGP, notably Govan Mbeki, Steve Tshwete, Mbombela and Emalahleni.

• The following strategic thrusts have informed the development of programmes:

 Enhance the provincial economic development to improve the quality of life for all.
 Prioritise the advancement of the second economy to address poverty and unemployment.

2.3.3 (b) Development Infrastructure

• In total 12,9 % of households are below basic level of access to water.

• The percentage of households that use electricity for lighting increased from 56,6 % to 68,6 % from 1996 to 2001. There are 15 power stations in the province.


• There has been an increase in the number of households below basic access to sanitation.

• The percentage of households below basic access to telephones has decreased.

• The housing backlog in the province is in region of 113 000.

• A total of 3,4 % of the province’s land has been transferred as part of the land reform programme.

• The following strategic thrust has informed the development of programmes:

 The development of multi faceted infrastructure to address basic needs and improve the quality of life.

2.3.3 (c) Social Development

• Health facilities in rural areas remain a challenge, particularly TB, Malaria, HIV and Aids as key causes for mortality.

• Crime has to be reduced in the whole Province.

• The provision of Sport and Recreation facilities are not adequate.

• The Province is home to numerous sites of cultural and natural significance that need to be preserved but also used to enhance tourism development.

• Interventions should also be targeted in support of women, youth, disabled people and other vulnerable groups.

• The following strategic thrust has informed the development of programmes:

 Attain high levels of social development that will ensure a well-educated citizenry that is healthy, sage and has access to sufficient recreational facilities.

2.3.3(d) Sustainable Environmental Development

• It is known that the global environment continues to suffer because of human development. However, the success of all development initiatives depends on the sustainable utilisation of natural resources.

• The following key issues are noted:

 The Mpumalanga’s per capita waste generation is higher than the national average.
 The Province is the largest producer of hazardous waste in the country.
 As three quarters of the national electricity supply is produced in the province, the area suffers from high levels of air pollution.
 There are three centres of endemism in the province.

• The following strategic thrust has informed the development of programmes:

 To ensure sustainable development and environmental management.

2.3.3(e) Good Governance

• To ensure effective integration and coordination of service delivery within and amongst provincial departments as well as between spheres of Government.

• The following strategic thrusts have informed the development of programmes:

 Enhance and develop the institutional capacity of the public sector to ensure effective and efficient service delivery.
 Promote and enhance co-operative governance for integrated service delivery.
 Promote a culture of accountability and transparency in the public sector.
 Improved integrated service delivery through innovative and proactive practises.
 Strengthening of the partnerships and community participation in development and service delivery,

2.3.3(f) Human Resource Development

• Economic growth and development strategies that are not backed up by strategic human resource development are destined to fail. As such, the high unemployment levels in the Province together with a shortage of technologically skilled manpower severely constrain economic growth and competitiveness. The challenge is to transform the present labour force.

• The following strategic thrusts have informed the development of programmes:

 Invest in peoples skills to promote service delivery, economic growth and development.
 To focus higher education institutions to meet the skills demand of the Province.
 Improve access to and ensure quality education.


2.4 KEY FINDINGS

• There is a plethora of policy documents and legislation that provide spatial strategic guidelines for each sector of development. Examples include:

 The Development Facilitation Act
 The White Paper on South African Land Policy
 The Housing Act
 The Housing White Paper
 Green Paper on Development and Planning
 National Environmental Management Act.

• However, the spatial guidelines contained in the vast majority of legislation and policy documents can be summarised as:

 Promote the integration of social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of land development.
 Promote integrated development in rural and urban areas, and with each other.
 Promote residential and employment opportunities, and in close proximity with each other.
 Optimise existing resources.
 Promote diverse combination of land uses.
 Promote compact cities and discourage urban sprawl.
 Assist in correcting historically distorted settlement patterns, and optimise the use of existing settlements.
 Encourage environmental sustainability.
 Meet basic needs in economically and environmentally efficient manner, and, should be viable.
 Provision must be made for security of tenure and different tenure options.
 Land development should be co-ordinated so as to minimise conflict and stimulate competition.
 There should be a rapid release of land for development.
 That the disturbance of eco-systems and loss of bio-diversity are avoided, or where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and remedied.
 Pollution and degradation of the environment is avoided, or where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and remedied.
 Disturbance of landscapes and sites that constitute the nations cultural heritage are avoided, or where they cannot be altogether avoided, minimised and remedied.

• In addition to taking cognisance of all national, provincial and local government policies and legislation that affect a particular municipality in the formulation of its IDP, the MSA Regulations, are a tool to guide the formulation of SDFs. These can be summarised as follows:

 Adherence to the principles of the DFA.
 Reflect the desired patterns of land use.
 Address the spatial reconstruction of the municipality.
 Provide strategic guidance with respect to location and nature of development.
 Contain basic guidelines for a LUMS.
 A Capital Investment Framework (contained in the financial section of the IDP).
 A strategic assessment of the environmental impact of the SDF.
 Identify programmes for the development of land.
 Be aligned with the SDFs of neighbouring municipalities.
 Must include a visual representation of desired spatial form with respect to:

 Location of public and private land development
 Indicate desired and undesired use of land
 Delineate the urban edge/s
 Indicate strategic intervention areas.









































3. MUNICIPAL OVERVIEW

3.1 LOCALITY

• Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality is located in the south of Gert Sibande District Municipality of Mpumalanga Province.

• The main settlements in the municipal area are Volksrust, Vukuzakhe, Sinqobile, Ameersfoort/Zamokuhle, Perdekop, Zizameleni, Wakkerstroom and rural area Waggakraal.


3.2 AREA

• Pixley ka Seme Local Municipality is 5227.9 km² in extent

• This equates to 16.4% of the Gert Sibande land mass.


3.3 BOUNDARIES AND NEIGHBOURS

• Pixley ka Seme Local Municipality is bounded by Msukaligwa Local Municipality to the north, Lekwa Local Municipality to the west, Mkhondo Local Municipality to the east and KwaZulu-Natal to the south.

• The municipality within KwaZulu-Natal is Newcastle Local Municipality and the one in the Free State Province is Phumelela Local Municipality.


3.4 KEY FEATURES

• Volksrust provides commercial as well as administrative functions to the surrounding area of the Local Municipality.

• The Vaal River forms part of the municipality’s northern boundary.

• The R23 and N11 are the major roads traversing the municipal area.

• The national rail network also traverses the municipality.

• Agriculture is the major contributor to the GGP in the municipal area.



3.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS

3.5.1 Climate And Air Quality

• The Municipality is situated in a subtropical climate zone, where rainfall occurs in the summer months between September and May.

• Throughout the region, 95% of the rainfall is received during the summer six months, October to March, but the month of maximum precipitation is either January or February.

• The western portions of the municipality can receive between 600-800mm/yr and the eastern portion can receive between 800-1000mm/yr.

• In the summer temperatures range from as high as 40°C during the day to 10°C in the evening. Winters are milder and temperatures usually vary between 20°C during the day and 10°C at night.

• Hail is particularly destructive of crops in many parts of South Africa but the occurrence of very severe hailstorms in the Lowveld is comparatively rare. Hailstorms of average severity may be expected in the region during the summer months. Winds blow mainly from the east but their actual destination varies from place to place according to local topographic effects. Gales are however rare, and damage to crops from this source is insignificant.

• Frost does occur, but apart from light frost which may occur from May to August, the period during which ordinary frosts may be expected is less than 30 days per year.

• Five pollution transport pathways across the highveld with regards to wind direction were determined according to wind directions over South Africa. The most relevant transport pathway in the Gert Sibande District Municipality is the direct transport towards the Indian Ocean and recirculation over the subcontinent.


3.5.2 Topography/Geology/Soil Potential

• The Municipality is fairly flat with most of the area with a slope of less than 9%. A few hilly areas are located on the southern and south eastern boundaries.

• The Seme Local Municipality is underlain predominantly by shale, arenite and dolerite intrusions of the Karoo Supergroup.

• Other major underlying rock types are Mudstone and arenite.


• The soil potential of the Municipality is dominated by soils that are not distinguished into any dominant class as well as a few areas with an intermediate soil potential.

• A small area of highly arable soil occurs in the central regions of the Municipality. The soils in the south eastern parts of the Municipality are mostly suitable for forestry and grazing.

• The dominant land use in the Municipality is agriculture which could potentially impact the soil quality of the area through incorrect farming practices and pesticide use.

• Major forestry plantations are present on the eastern boundary of the Municipality which could potentially impact negatively on the surrounding environment. Several protected areas including the

• Wakkerstroom lake complex are included in this Municipality, hence the potential impacts from forestry and agriculture are crucial to their conservation.


3.5.3 Hydrology And Wetlands

• The Seme Local Municipality falls mostly within the Upper Vaal Water Management Area. Parts of the municipality in the east fall within the Usutu /Pongola and Thukela Water Management Area.

• Due to the location of a number of major catchment divides in the municipality, rivers in the municipality are tributaries of the Vaal, Thukela or Pongola Rivers respectively.

• The Vaal River forms part of the northern boundary of the municipality.

• Water quality in the municipality is adversely affected by diffuse pollution from agricultural activities, as well as by sewage outflows in the municipality, and by mining activities, where they occur.

• A number of important wetlands are found within the municipality. A concentration of vleis occurs along the seasonally inundated floodplain of the Vaal River on the northern boundary of the municipality.

• The south of the municipality has Wakkerstroom Wetland complex which is a is a local and national important wetland system, part of which has been designated a protected area.

• The area around Wakkerstroom contains the headwaters of 3 major river systems.

• The Wakkerstroom wetland complex is one of the few peatland wetlands within South Africa. Peatlands act as centres of biodiversity, as carbon sinks, and are an important component of the hydrological functioning of drainage systems in which they occur.

• Seepage areas important to the functioning of the upper Vaal River are to be found in the north of the municipality.

• Wetland loss in the area is primarily caused by agricultural land-use, with erosion and draining of wetlands being the main threats to wetland hydrological functioning.

• However wetland threats in the municipality also include the damming of wetlands (e.g. for trout farming), the expansion of the timber industry; and, in the Wakkerstroom area, also the expansion of coal mining; especially open cast coal mines.

3.5.4 Biodiversity

• The Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality is home to some important biodiversity areas.

• The highest biodiversity is located in the southern and eastern portions of the municipality near Wakkerstroom and north of this area. Biodiversity tends to be considerably lower in the western potions of the area.

• Negative impacts on biodiversity are primarily from agriculture and forestry which impacts on the ecological and hydro systems of an area.

• The area is dominated by Themeda Veld (Turf Highveld (Acocks, 1988) in the west and North Eastern Sandy Highveld in the east. A band of Themeda Veld to Highland Sourveld runs through the centre of the area. A small area of Southern Tall Grassveld exists in the extreme south of the municipality.

• These veld types have all been transformed over the entire Mpumalanga to some degree by various land uses.



3.6 SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS

• 9.0% of the District’s population is located in Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality.


Table 1: Population



• Population density in the municipality is 15.4 people per km2 which is lower than the district population density of 28.6 people km2.

• The average annual population growth rate is 2.8% per annum.

• 27% of the population is located in urban areas with 73% residing in rural areas.

Table 2: Urban-Rural Split



• 35.3% of the population older than 20 years is illiterate. This is higher than the District figure of 26.3% of illiterate adults.

• Only 4.3% of the population older than 20 years has a higher education and the majority of the literate population has secondary education (34.9%).






Table 3: Education



• There are more females (53%) than there are males (47%) in the municipal area.

Table 4: Gender



3.7 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

• 56% of the total population is in the working age group.

Table 5: Working Age


• 13% of the total population is economically active. Almost half of the economically active population (49%) is employed. 51% of the economically active population is unemployed. This equates to a dependency ratio of 1:6.8. This is higher than the District dependency ratio of 1:5.

Table 6: Employment



• The key economic sectors within which the majority of the labour force is employed is agriculture, forestry and fishing (23.5%); private households (20.1%); community, social and personal (16.2%).


Table 7: Labour Force by Sector



• Poverty levels are high with 27.9% of households receiving no monthly income











Table 8: Household Income



3.8 ACCESS TO SERVICES

• More than 82.5% of households in the municipal area have access to clean tapped water either in house or from community stand pipes.

Table 9: Water Supply



• 51.9% of the households have access to refuse disposal services provided by the municipality. Almost half of the households in the municipal area do not receive refuse collection services and use either communal or private dump sites.











Table 10: Refuse Disposal



• 51.4% of households have access to proper sanitation services. The remaining 48.6% of the households use either chemical toilets, pit latrines, bucket latrines, VIPs or have no sanitation in their households

Table 11: Sanitation



• 66.9 % of households have electricity connections. Households with no electricity use candles (29.3%) and paraffin (2.7%)

Table 12: Energy Supply



• 45.1% of households are dependant upon public telephones for communication. 23.4% of the households in the municipal area have access to cell phone networks.

Table 13: Telecommunications



• The majority of households (58.5%) live in formal dwellings. 11.5% live in informal dwellings and 30.1% live in either traditional or other types of dwelling

Table 14: Dwelling Type




4. REGIONAL OVERVIEW

Diagram 1: Regional Context

• Where the municipal overview concentrates expressly on the municipal area having an inward focus, the regional overview has an outward focus considering the area surrounding the Municipality.

• Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality is bounded by the following areas:

 Msukaligwa Local Municipality;
 Lekwa Local Municipality;
 Thabo Mofutsanyane State District Municipality;
 Amajuba District Municipality;
 Zululand District Municipality; and
 Mkhondo Local Municipality

4.1 MSUKALIGWA LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

• Msukaligwa is the most centrally located municipality in Gert Sibande DM and therefore abuts many of the other local municipal areas.

• It is an important rural area forming part of both the national maize triangle and the north-south forestry spine. However, rurally it has little impact on its surrounding areas other than to achieve environmental continuity.

• Second to the Secunda complex, Ermelo is the largest urban area in the District providing a range of tertiary services and facilities, including one or two colleges. Hence, it attracts consumers from elsewhere but is in no way a drain for its neighbours.


4.2 LEKWA LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

• Lekwa LM is a predominantly rural area, which is intensively and commercially cultivated. The main produce is maize and cattle. Like other local municipalities in Gert Sibande, Lekwa LM falls within the national maize triangle.

• The largest urban area is Standerton which is centrally located within the local municipal area. It is a diversified town accommodating a range of tertiary services. From there a network of roads criss-cross the area providing access to smaller rural centres which cater for the rural hinterland.

• Rural continuity is evident between Lekwa and its surrounding municipalities, and hence, rather than competition, these areas complement each other.


4.3 THABO MOFUTSANYANE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY

• Thabo Mofutsanyane DM is situated in the north-eastern corner of the Free State Province. While no SDF or any other local documentation could be obtained it is held that the District’s primary composition is rural and that land practices constitute commercial farming.

• Though the area abuts a portion of the Vaal River and the Klip River, little tourism opportunities have been explored as is the case on the Gert Sibande DM’s side of these Rivers.

• It is deemed that the adjoining land uses are compatible and complementary.


4.4 AMAJUBA DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY

• Amajuba District Municipality forms part of KwaZulu-Natal and is located south of Volksrust, Volksrust being on the provincial boundary. Amajuba DM is largely rural in composition with its major urban centre being Newcastle (approximately 70km south of Volksrust). The closest town to Gert Sibande is Charlestown, which according to the Amajuba DM’s SDF is a service satellite. While many of the residents from Charlestown trade in Volksrust, so many Volksrust residents trade in Newcastle. A symbiotic relationship exists.

• Despite boundaries an interrelationship exists between Pixley Ka Seme LM and Amajuba DM which in all likelihood benefits both municipalities. A continuum is evident in terms of spatial development and the environment.


4.5 ZULULAND DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY

• Zululand District Municipality is located in the north-eastern corner of KwaZulu Natal, abutting Pixley Ka Seme and Mkhondo Local Municipalities. The District is by and large rural in composition and such is reflected in the District’s SDF.

• The District proposes the rural development of the region focussing particularly on agricultural projects and land redistribution. There are few settlements within the northern abutting area and hence limited impacts are anticipated.

• From where the N2 passes into Zululand DM the SDF proposes the establishment of a development corridor which has a strong tourism bias. Such may have an impact on Mkhondo LM, but such impact is expected to be positive rather than negative.

4.6 MKHONDO LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

• Mkhondo LM is characterised by vast forestry plantations interrupted by rural settlements. Forestry forms a continuum towards the north into Albert Luthuli and Msukaligwa LMs and the entire area contributes well to national timber yields.

• The largest urban area is Piet Retief which is centrally located. It is a diversified urban area catering sufficiently for itself and some of its smaller neighbours, yet in some instances is still reliant on larger areas such as Ermelo.

• Mkhondo LM does not have any significant impacts on its neighbours and is rather complementing than competing.




































5. ANALYSIS OF CURRENT SPATIAL PATTERN

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Map 1: Locality
Map 2: Administrative Boundaries
Map 3: Land Use

• Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality is situated on the southern point of Mpumalanga Province between Lekwa and Mkhondo Local Municipalities. On the whole it is a rural area with only one major urban centre namely Volksrust, which is located on the provincial boundary of KwaZulu Natal. For the rest, there are a few minor settlements, which include Wakkerstroom, Amersfoort, Siyazenzela, Perdekop and Daggakraal. In total the municipality covers an area of approximately 5 227km² in which ±86 000 people live.


5.2 URBAN COMPOSITION

Map 4: Land Cover and Settlement Hierarchy

5.2.1 MAJOR URBAN AREAS

• Volksrust together with Vukuzakhe can be classified as a major urban area. It is estimated that 25% of the 86 000 people, reside in Volkrust/Vukuzakhe which confirms that it is the largest settlement area in Pixley Ka Seme.

• Volksrust is a large urban centre which is located on the N11 and on the Mpumalanga / KwaZulu Natal border. The N11 is an important transport route for tourists and freight and has, in part, led to the diversified development of Volksrust

• The town is well served with engineering and social services and hence supports itself as well as the surrounding hinterland.


5.2.2 MINOR URBAN AREAS

• There are several minor urban areas in the municipality. These vary in size and composition, but are essentially regarded as minor because of their lack of economic diversification, thus, for a large part having stayed rural support centres.

• Wakkerstroom is located along the R543 east of Volksrust. It is a small urban area but disposes of a police station, library, schools and some retail sites. Its economy is gradually growing as the area is starting to transform from a mere agricultural support centre to a tourist destination given the wide variety of bird species to be found in the area.

• In terms of population distribution Daggakraal is a large urban area, accommodating 33% of the population. Unlike Volksrust it is not situated on a main road, and is in fact removed from the N11. It can therefore not tap into the opportunities offered by the through-traffic, and consequently, economic diversification is limited.

• Amersfoort is situated further north of Daggakraal on the intersection of the N11 and R35 from Bethal. It is a small urban centre with limited retail facilities, only few tertiary services, has a railway station and adjoining silos, a police station and municipal offices. It, henceforth, accommodates very basic infrastructure and services rendering it a minor urban settlement.


5.2.3 DECLINING URBAN AREAS

• Perdekop is situated on the R23 between Volksrust and Standerton. It is a very small urban area appearing to be minimally active. Economic decline is surely setting in as the town is also by-passed by the R23, hindering by-passing traffic spin-offs from boosting the town.

5.3 RURAL LAND USE

Map 5: Conceptual Environmental Analysis

5.3.1 INTRODUCTION:

• The rural land use in Pixley Ka Seme is dominated by agricultural activities, many of them subsistence in their nature. The southern edge of the area is vitally important for biodiversity and conservation with beautiful high ridges/mountains and low lying wetlands. Forestry, although not dominant, exists on the eastern boundary of the area in small patches.

• The sustainability of the ecology of the Pixley Ka Seme area is dependant on the delicate interrelationship between the natural flora, fauna and general environmental parameters of the area. The aforementioned determine the spatial layout and land use of the area to a large degree.

• A number of environmental opportunities and constraints have been identified at a broad level. These are detailed below, and are also represented in the relevant map.

• Table 15 illustrates a break down at a local municipality level.


Table 15: Environmental Opportunities and Constraints

Local Municipality
Area of Biodiversity importance Tourism Potential Forestry Heavy Industry & Mining Agriculture
Opportunity Constraint
Seme Dominant Limited No No Dominant


5.3.2 MINES AND QUARRIES


Overview

• There is some mining in the Pixley ka Seme Local Municipality. Mines in operation are scattered around the municipality and include sand, dolerite and coal mining. The eastern Highveld coalfield which lies between Ermelo and Volksrust is partly situated the municipality. Small scale open cast coal mining was noted to the east of Wakkerstroom.

• Industry is also scattered within the municipality. There is some light industry in Volksrust. The Majuba power station is located in the Volksrust area.

Impacts

• Any impact of mining in the municipality is likely to be localised. Opencast mining would be likely to cause dust problems and sedimentation in local watercourses.

• Coal mining, especially strip mining, is likely to cause soil contamination, pollution of local watercourses through acidification, groundwater pollution, and emission of atmospheric pollutants, and generally habitat loss and degradation of sensitive ecosystems.

• Emissions from coal-fired power stations cause impaired air quality.

• There is concern over the spread of coal mining in the Wakkerstroom district. The area is of high conservation value due to the extensive wetlands found there. The spread of mining would seriously threaten the integrity of the wetlands and other habitats in the area.


5.3.3 CONSERVATION AREAS

Map 6: Conservation/ Biodiversity

Overview

• The Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality has a number of vitally important conservation and biodiversity areas that have regional importance. Important conservation areas occur in the southerly parts, particularly around Wakkerstroom. The grasslands that run in a north south direction from Carolina through Seme to Wakkerstroom form a continuous band of important biodiversity.
• The Versamel Mountains situated within the Municipality create an opportunity to link important conservation areas within the greater Gert Sibande District Municipality.

• An important development is the Ekangala Grassland Biosphere Reserve which is in the process of being established and formalised. This large area is vital for the conservation of this important biome. This area has its northern boundary in the Wakkerstroom area, and then extends through the Seme Municipality.

• The Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality incorporates some of South Africa’s precious wetlands. These wetlands play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological integrity of an area and consequently have a high conservation value.

• Some wetlands are under threat by forestry activities in the area. Wetlands have an important conservation value, functioning as important ecological green belts providing areas for natural bird and animal life to migrate as well as areas that the communities can use for cattle grazing.

• The Wakkerstroom wetland is a very important ecological wetland as a vital catchment for the Vaal and Pongola Rivers and its rich diversity of plant and animal life.

• The wetland systems are home to all three the crane species occurring in South Africa namely the Blue, Crowned and Wattled Cranes, as well as other protected bird, frog and plant species.

• There are also a number of Natural Heritage sites within the municipality. According to the data sources available, these areas are located around Wakkerstroom (Tafelkop, Boskop, Wakkerstroom and Kombewaira), as well as a large area near Warburton called Theespruit.

• Large portions of grassland near the Wakkerstroom region remain in near-pristine condition because this region has not been considered well-suited for the cultivation of timber or crops and the grazing animals.

• The distribution of areas important for bird conservation area located primarily in a broad north south axis from Wakkerstroom to Carolina. In addition, the central portion of the municipality has also been identified as a bird conservation hotspot.

• Areas important for reptile conservation are found in a broad band running north south from Volksrust and Wakkerstroom to Carolina.

Impacts on Conservation

• The existing land use practices in the Municipality are dominated by extensive grazing, maize fields and a few other crops.

• Wakkerstroom and other wetland areas where agriculture is currently practiced are generally under threat by these practices.
• Natural and untouched habitats are rapidly decreasing and becoming increasingly fragmented into unsustainable habitats, which leads to loss of biodiversity.

5.3.4 AGRICULTURE

Map 7: Hydrology
Map 8: Soil Potential

Overview

• The majority of the land in the Seme Local Municipality is classified as unimproved grassland and utilised for stock grazing.

• The remaining land in the municipality is utilised as temporary cultivated dryland, on which maize is grown. The predominance of grazing land and the lesser extent of cultivated land can be partly explained by the much lower soil fertility in this municipality as opposed to other local municipalities in the Gert Sibande District. However, a small area of highly arable soil occurs in the central portions of the municipality. The soils in the south eastern parts of the Municipality are mostly suitable for forestry and grazing.

• The soil acidity within the Municipality has been determined to be slightly acidic (pH 5.2 – 6.5). This affects the rigour of vegetation growth and it determines which cultivated crops will thrive or deteriorate in a given area.

Impacts

• The extensive agricultural land use cover in the municipality is responsible for the loss and fracturing of the grassland veld type that has been transformed by between 20 and 51%.

• Poor management of cultivated and pastoral land is the main factor behind soil erosion in the municipality. Incorrect ploughing practices, overgrazing and cattle movement cause both sheet and gully erosion that contributes to a high silt load in the rivers in the municipality.

• Agriculture is the main threat to wetland degradation within the municipality. Damming of wetlands, gully erosion and headcuts caused by cattle movement and draining of wetlands are mainly responsible for the loss of wetland habitat.

• In areas where cultivated land occurs, the water quality is adversely affected by high silt loads and fertilizers. The increase in the use of amoniacal fertilisers, enhanced aeration and the export of basic nutrients in the harvest increases soil acidification.

• Land degradation in the form of erosion, loss of habitat and chemical imbalances lead to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of land. This can often be a precursor to desertification.
• Land degradation which may occur reduces the productivity of land which in turn requires farmers to utilise fertilizers that, in turn, adversely affect surface and ground water resources as well as soil quality.

5.3.5 TOURISM AREAS AND POTENTIAL


Overview

• Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality falls within the Grass and Wetlands tourism region. The Grass and Wetlands region is unequivocally a birding paradise that lures bird watchers in their droves.

• The profile of traveller that visits or passes through the area is assumed to more vacation oriented with specific interests. The potential exists to lure international self-drive tourist off the major routes.

• As an area identified as a biodiversity “hotspot” the potential for further ecotourism related development is very high.

• Due to the area straddling the northwest and southeast watershed areas of significant scenic attraction are abundant. The areas to the West of Volksrust and northwest through Wakkerstroom present excellent potential for Guesthouse, B&B and or commercial Lodge / resort type facilities.

• Attractions in the area include ancient to recent historic sites and monuments, excellent bird watching and wildlife related opportunities related to wetland and grassland, fly fishing for trout and yellow fish and general fishing in streams, rivers and dams.

• Of particular importance are the town of Wakkerstroom and the associated grass/wetland. Existing development of the town as a tourist destination to be applied as a model elsewhere to encourage private and corporate freehold title investment.

Impacts

• The increase in tourism to a conservation area can sometimes lead to degradation of that which one is trying to conserve.
• The impacts of tourism in sensitive conservation areas include the following: access by roads and footpaths, visual impacts of tourism infrastructure, waste management, loss of sense of place and ecological fragmentation.

5.4 TRANSPORT NETWORK

Map 9: Transport Network

5.4.1 NATIONAL ROADS

• The N11 between Ermelo, Amersfoort and Volksrust traverses the area. It is an important north-south transportation route providing access from Limpopo Province to northern KwaZulu Natal.

• The N11 is both a freight transportation and tourism corridor. The road is in a fairly good condition making travel along it save.


5.4.2 PROVINCIAL ROADS

• Several provincial roads cut through the local municipal area, these include:

 R23 which connects north-westerly to Standerton; and
 Portions of the R543, which, towards the west leads to Vrede and towards the east leads to Wakkerstroom, Dirkieskop and Piet Retief. The R543 is in a moderate to bad state and needs to be repaired urgently to avoid any further erosion.
 The R543 also moves in a westerly direction connecting to Vrede but this road is presently not tarred, thereby prohibiting its regional use.
 While the N11 cuts through Volksrust, the R23/R543 bypasses the urban centre.


5.4.3 LOCAL ROADS

• All local roads are provided and maintained by the local municipality. In most of the urban centres, except for Volksrust, a portion of the local roads is tarred and a portion is gravel. This shows that the municipality has limited financial resources to upgrade existing road infrastructure. Nonetheless, maintenance should continue to avoid eradication of existing infrastructure.


5.4.4 RAIL

• Two railway lines pass through the area, the one is the main Johannesburg-Durban rail connection, which more or less follows the alignment of the R23 from Standerton, the other is a north-south alignment from north of Bethal passing through Amersfoort, Wakkerstroom and Volksrust.

• The former (Johannesburg-Durban) line accommodates both freight and passenger transport, though the passenger trains only stop in Standerton. The north-south railway line is exclusively used for the transportation of freight.


5.4.5 AIR

No information regarding airfields / aerodromes could be obtained from source documents.

• However, recent map books show that Volksrust has an airfield, which is probably not used for commercial flights and can in all likelihood only accommodate day landings due to an absence of a control tower and or landing lights.


5.4.6 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

No information regarding public transport could be obtained from source documents.


5.5 UTILITIES

Map 10: Access to Services

5.5.1 WATER PROVISION

• Bulk water supply to the settlement areas is sourced as follows:

 Wakkerstroom and eSizameleni obtain water from Martins Dam;
 Perdekop, Amersfoort and Siyazenzela obtain water via a bulk pipeline from the Amersfoort purification plant situated outside Amersfoort;
 Greater Volksrust obtains bulk water from Schuilhoek, Mahawane and Balfour Dams and, additionally has backup pipelines from the Slang River to Mahawane Dam; and
 Bulk water to Daggakraal is pumped from Amersfoort.

• It is concluded that nearly all the urban / settlement areas have access to purified water via an established bulk supply system. Yet, taken from statistics it would appear that almost 30% of the Pixley Ka Seme population is still reliant on borehole water and rivers. (This figure coincides with the population’s statistics which indicates that 30% of the population in this area reside in the rural areas.)


5.5.2 SANITATION SERVICES

• Within the municipal area it is estimated that 73% of households have access to waterborne sewerage.

• Formal sanitation provision correlates closely with formal water provision, and accordingly, it has been concluded that towns like Amersfoort, eSizameleni, Wakkerstroom, Perdekop, Volksrust and Vukuzakhe are formally serviced, while areas like Daggakraal, Sinqobile and Ezamokuhle rely on pit latrines or the bucket system.


5.5.3 ELECTRICITY

• Correlating with the above service provision statistics, almost 70% of households in the municipal area have access to electricity.

• Other sources of energy include candles, coal, paraffin and gas.

• The local authority, through funding from the National Electricity Regulator provides electricity in the urban areas and ESKOM services the rural areas.

• Of importance is the Majuba Power Station which is located near Daggakraal. It is an important industrial site as regards energy generation and employment creation.








5.6 SOCIAL FACILITIES

Map 11: Educational Facilities
Map 12: Health Facilities
Map 13: Social Facilities

• The IDP Revision report 2004 indicates of the approximate 86 000 people residing in Pixley Ka Seme 31% reside in the rural areas and the remainder has been urbanised.

• The population density stands at 15 pp/km² which is much lower than the district density of 28 pp/km². This is reflective of a sparsely populated area.

• This would reveal a strong need for social service delivery in the urban areas and appropriate access (public transport) to the rural areas.

• Importantly above statistics show that 45% of the population falls in the economically active category and 67% fall in the school going age category. Hence, there is glaring need for educational facilities and adult skills training ensuring that the people resources are best developed to benefit the region and minimise poverty.



5.7 ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE

• The IDP statistics indicate that 49% of the economically active population is employed. This figure suggests that half the of the potential work force is unemployed. Thus, demand for economic growth and education remain.

• In addition, statistics further disclose that in Amersfoort 72%, in Wakkerstroom 89% and in Volksrust 56% of households live below the minimum living level. Thus, though many of the people are employed their income potential is minimal.

• This also means that most of these households would qualify for government’s housing subsidy scheme.


5.8 KEY FINDINGS

• There is only on major urban area in the municipality, the rest are minor centres which are in the main small and lack economic diversification.

• The economic base of the area is founded on agriculture which centres on dry-land cultivation and animals.

• The area has some valuable environmental resources which must be protected and linked to tourism to, for one, retain the good environmental qualities and for another, increase economic diversification and generate other income for the local communities.

• Engineering and social services are concentrated in the urban areas, with the largest variety of services and facilities available in Volksrust.

• The population is by and large unemployed and consequently poor, which furthermore increases the dependency ratio. If the economy cannot be boosted the population will go into decline which will place pressure on government for increased social support to the area.

• Wakkerstroom is an unexplored tourism destination of global significance owing to the large variety of bird species found in the area.





6. VISION AND MISSION


6.1 MUNICIPAL VISION AND MISSION

• According to the IDP, Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality has adopted the following vision for the area:

‘Pixley Ka Seme is a credible, affordable, well developed and the best municipality’.


• Defining its vision , Pixley Ka Seme has adopted the following mission:

We will delivery affordable and quality services, in accordance with our Integrated Development Plan. This will be achieved through community participation, trained and motivated staff, rapid economic development and a tourism friendly environment.

6.2 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SDF

• The vision and mission are locally conceived directives which form a crucial part of the IDP in directing future development and growth. Since it informs the IDP it must also inform the Spatial Development Framework, as it is a follow-on output of the IDP. This section briefly reflects on the vision and mission to assess in which way it informs the future spatial development thrust.

 Pixley Ka Seme aims for cost effective and efficient service delivery which must be underpinned by good planning and a proper integrated plan. As part of the IDP the SDF must therefore direct service delivery and development.
 The latter suggests a need for a hierarchy to be identified in terms of which service delivery will be structured and shared development can take place.
 Economic development is recognised as an important development factor and hence, economic growth and advancement are embraced.
 The intention is to explore latent economic opportunities, such as tourism to ensure that greater advantage can be extracted.


6.3 KEY INDICATORS

• In summary, the following are key indicators that should inform the spatial development framework for the Municipality:

 There is a need for a plan (SDF) to direct cost effective, efficient and balanced development;
 A development hierarchy must be identified to ensure spatial structuring and infrastructure delivery;
 Economic development is critical; and
 More tourism opportunities must be explored.





7. DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES


7.1 INTRODUCTION

• In order to guide the preparation of the Spatial Development Framework certain universal development principles have been identified which all spatial plans should aim to meet.

• This section identifies the development principles that if met, would result in what could be considered good spatial form. In turn, if these principles are met the implication is that the spatial aspects of the municipal vision will also be met.

• The principles thus offer a way of testing whether development decisions are appropriate or not.

• In examining the principles of good spatial form it is important to note that:

 Spatial planning decisions taken by individuals as well as by organisations affect the economic, social and physical environment of an area.
 In the study area, spatial form has been largely influenced by political decisions of individuals and organisation.
 Given the strong rural base and scattered urban developments in the area, good spatial form should be examined in a way that creates balance between these two spatial characteristics.

• The development principles that inform good spatial form are represented as follows:




Figure 4: Development Principles























• These principles are examined in further detail below.


7.2 CONCENTRATION

• Spatial form should aim to achieve equitability by ensuring services and facilities are concentrated in areas of high accessibility.

• This makes life more convenient and allows for such services and opportunities to be shared among communities and hence reduces duplication of inaccessible services.

• Concentration of services and facilities allows for benefits through scales of economy.

• Such clustering of facilities is time efficient and works to the benefit of the poor in particular who are frequently located on the periphery of serviced areas.

• Concentration of services and facilities also promotes an efficient transport system. When development is concentrated at certain nodes, transport routes are clearly defined and serve maximum volumes of people with minimal facilities.

• Areas with concentrated pockets of development promote vibrant economic and social life.


7.3 CONNECTIVITY

• Transport networks are to be promoted as they are the ‘veins’ of economic growth and are an important catalyst in economic development.

• Areas that are highly accessible through transport networks have better opportunities for economic growth by increasing their sphere of influence and in turn their market threshold increases.

• When transport systems are in place and are reliable, goods can be quickly and efficiently transported thereby increasing investor confidence.

• When diverse goods and services are located along the transport network that have high traffic volumes it allows for the generation of income by taking advantage of passing traffic.

• Despite the above, it is important that the free flow of traffic is obstructed

• In urban areas development corridors need be supported by dense residential bases.


7.4 CONSERVATION

• Spatial planning should encourage sustainable, balanced growth and development within the carrying capacity of the area.

• One of such mechanisms of this is through controlling urban sprawl and the conservation of agricultural and environmentally important land

• Efficient land use management will preserve and support agricultural uses and maintain and revitalise existing urban centres.

• Rural areas that are able to sustain themselves without being over dependant on urban areas are achieved through rural development and investment initiatives. In some cases this can mean tapping into other economic sectors.

• Such conservation includes the preservation of natural resources. Spatial planning needs to conserve limited natural resources and ensure that sustainability is achieved.

• Networks of open spaces are to be created which are accessible to all people.

• Open space and natural resources can be used as a base on which to build the tourism industry.


7.5 SUMMARY

• Good spatial form can be achieved through adherence to certain universal spatial principles. Concentration, connectivity and conservation are the core principles that need to guide spatial development.

• However the applicability of these principles will vary from place to place depending on the location, type and function of existing development and the will of those in authority to implement them.

• The benefits of applying these spatial principles are that all aspects of development i.e. economic, environmental and social benefit.

• The next section searches for a spatial model that can be used to guide the development of the Spatial Development Framework. The choice of an appropriate model will be guided by whether it will ensure the three principles of development; concentration, connectivity and conservation, can be met.




8. SPATIAL MODEL


8.1 NEED FOR A MODEL

• Past planning practices have emphasised development in the urban areas with the assumption that there will be a ‘trickle-down’ effect to outlying areas. However, this urban bias failed to meet the needs of people on the periphery and as a result a large number of rural people remained in conditions characterised by poverty. Models were therefore developed based on the recognition of a need to support the development of small towns as a means of improving the delivery of services specifically in rural areas of South Africa.

• A model is therefore required to guide spatial planning in the municipality to facilitate the provision of appropriate services in order to meet basic needs and for social and economic upliftment to be achieved.

• Three alternative models are examined below. One model is looked at, at a national level, a second at an urban scale, and, a third within a rural context. The theoretical models will be outlined and then a model will be selected and developed for the local condition of the municipality.

• An applicable model should enable the municipality to:

 realise the vision of the municipality, and the provision of services in an efficient and sustainable manner;
 ensure proper investment decisions are made;
 ensure that there is a sufficient threshold to support facilities and services;
 ensure proper services and facilities are provided in accordance with the need of the community; and
 adhere to the principles of conservation, concentration and connectivity, as discussed in the previous chapter.

8.2 ALTERNATIVE MODELS

• Some models and structuring elements currently used in South Africa are explored below, in order to provide a basis on which to develop a model applicable to the Gert Sibande District Municipality and the seven Local Municipalities.



8.2.1 THE NATIONAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE (NSDI)

• The NSDI recognises that not just the cities are powerhouses for economic growth. It sees the maximum potential for growth and equity when synergy between different strategies is achieved. It proposes the following strategies:

 Urban nodes, categorised as major metropolitan areas, fast growing urban nodes, secondary cities;
 Rural clusters;
 Sectoral strategies e.g. tourism, transport
 Industrial clusters;
 Economic spines, includes infrastructure base to support economic growth e.g. telecommunication lines, transportation networks, ports and airports; and
 Development corridors, clustering of pubic investment in a range of sectors in order to build on the opportunities offered by linking nodes of development.

• The national spatial development initiative identifies nodes where public investment should be directed, to become competitive locations. Each node in South Africa’s urban hierarchy is considered an important and dynamic component of the urban hierarchy.


8.2.2 THE CITY OF ETHEKWINI STRUCTURING ELEMENTS

• The eThekwini Metropolitan municipality also provides a framework for investment in terms of nodes and corridors. In terms of the EMA, the following node and settlement hierarchy is proposed:




Figure 5: City of eThekwini Structuring Elements

NODE FUNCTION
Major economic investment node (regional centre / city)  Regional centre / city
 Generally industrial / business in character
 Meets needs of large population outside its boundaries
Mixed investment nodes (towns / provincial administration centres)  Meets needs of large population within eThekwini Metropolitan Area
 Generally focused typology for example industrial, business, etc.
Rural investment nodes  Provides activities and services for specific rural area
 Provides support services in terms of business, agricultural, tourism and environmental issues
 Opportunities for local economic development, transport amenities, etc.
Local service nodes (small and emerging rural centres)  Small and emerging rural centres
 Serves to provide local level of services for its surrounding communities
 Services and economic activities, traditional structure facilities, etc.
 Fulfils needs of smaller population in terms of limited threshold and goods and services provided
 Location based on centrality and accessibility of community and existing facilities.
 Ideal location and opportunities for periodic markets to be established as they provide a regular focal point for job creation.


8.2.3 THE RURAL SERVICE SYSTEM (RSS) MODEL

• In KwaZulu Natal an Integrated Rural Service System Model was formulated. This initiative was undertaken to:

 Alleviate poverty within rural KwaZulu-Natal;
 Minimise adverse impacts on the environment;
 Deliver services more effectively and to reduce the costs of service delivery; and
 To stimulate and promote local economic development.

• The model is intended to deliver services in rural areas through a common distribution network known as the Rural Service System. The system has two elements: a service ‘hub’ which will be the distribution and co-ordination point and ‘satellites’ which will deliver supplementary services. These focal points offer a range of services to people living in the vicinity. The level of services or activities at these focal points is determined by the threshold and degree of specialisation a centre offers, its density and buying power of its population, transportation and size of competing centres. An example in the difference in level of service provision is a police station could be provided at the hub and routine patrol of the police force at the satellites. Another example of typical services in the hub and satellite are a hospital at the hub and clinic/mobile service at the satellite, and, post office and boxes at the hub with post boxes at the satellite.

• The hierarchy and patterns of service centres are not static but can change over time. However, for a hub to be successful, appropriate ranges and thresholds are important as well as government commitment, especially in terms of funding.

• The RSS model proposed the provision of services through rural service centres (RSCs) at the hubs. RSCs are aimed at stimulating rural productivity, raising rural incomes and strengthening the economic base of the hinterland. These RSCs pay special attention to the rural economy and its needs. With RSCs it is important that there should be a settlement hierarchy of towns or rural service centres in the poorer and more rural centres, thus access to public services is maximised by the location of an appropriate level of service through large, intermediate and small centres. RSCs are based on a hierarchy of functions resulting in network channels that promote development of the rural area. The hierarchy of service centres incorporates existing towns and their functions.

• The model is embedded in the spatial economic theory that sees the spatial manifestation of economic activity distribution as a hierarchical network of concentration points, commonly known as cores (nodes) or centres.

• In terms of the theory, economic activities tend to gravitate to specific locations due to the mutual benefits which result from concentration, that is, shared infrastructure, shared markets, one activity producing input for another activity, etc. The range of services at a core is directly related to the surrounding threshold served by the core. The greater the threshold, the greater the range of services. Conversely, the greater the range of services, the greater the thresholds. Within an area served by a core, lower order concentrations of activities emerge serving segments of the greater threshold.

• The hierarchy of nodes in the rural service system model is a four-tier model of service delivery. The model designates places as follows:

 Regional Centres
 Provincial Rural Administration Centres (PRACs)
 Small Emerging Rural Centres (SERCs)
 Small / other settlements.

• Rural upliftment is mainly focussed at the SERC level. The model proposes to make SERCs the basis for delivery of services thereby meeting the needs of the surrounding population.

• SERCS are relatively far apart (60-80kms) and to enhance accessibility to services the model proposes that they in effect comprise the following components :

 Rural Service Centres, or hub, which is located at the SERC and several satellite service locations within the service area of the SERC. This is the distribution and co-ordination point.
 Satellite or lower order hub, located within the service area of the SERC. Satellites will deliver supplementary services.
 Connecting infrastructure linking the hubs to the various satellites


8.2.3.1 Hub

• The hub serves as a distribution centre to the rural areas. It provides a range of services and economic activities and serves as a distribution centre for the rural service area. As the threshold of a hub is greater than that of a satellite, a greater variety and higher order and more permanent services can be sustained at a hub.

• Criteria on determining location of a hub include:

 Existing economic base of the settlement and future economic growth potential;
 Location in terms of major transportation routes;
 Existing and potential agglomeration effects;
 Level of existing public service provision;
 Existing level of private / commercial service provision and investment;
 Existing level of infrastructural and logistical support from higher order centres;
 Need for services within the community and surrounding area;
 Existing level of local political organisation and support from target community; and
 Accessibility of land for development.


8.2.3.2 Satellites

• Satellites are of a lower order where a range of services and economic activities could be concentrated in a sustainable way . Satellites are located on the periphery of a hub. Satellites are usually more accessible and in a convenient distance to a particular rural community. As a result of the thresholds they generate, services tend to be lower order, mobile or temporary. Satellites may be categorised in terms of their economic potential or by their proximity to other service centres.

• Identification of a satellite location should consider:

 Density and distribution of the population to be served;
 Level of existing economic activity;
 Proximity of transport routes and modes of transport;
 Topography of the locality;
 Land tenure arrangements; and
 Level of service infrastructure.


8.2.3.3 Connecting Infrastructure

• Links between hubs and satellites need to be reinforced to support service provision. Initial investment should focus on:

 Road connections to facilitate access between hubs and satellites;
 Communication infrastructure to facilitate transfer of information between hubs and satellites; and
 Energy, water and sanitation infrastructure to support service activities.

• The connecting transport infrastructure linking the hubs and various satellites has been identified as corridors, as categorised below.



8.2.3.4 Development Corridors

• Development corridors provide strong linkages between the main settlements in the settlement hierarchy, as well as channelling movement within the municipality. They also provide strong structuring elements to guide future development.


8.2.3.5 Primary Corridor

• The primary corridor serves to facilitate movement as efficiently as possible through the area. As a result, there should be little interruption to traffic flow along the corridor, although there is the potential for development at nodes along the corridor.


8.2.3.6 Secondary Corridor

• The secondary corridors link two hubs and are links along which existing development is located. Tourism and agriculture land uses can be promoted along the secondary corridors.


8.2.3.7 Tertiary Corridor

• Tertiary corridors function to link lower order settlements to services. As these are local links, they are generally slower moving corridors. They serve to link settlements, and thereby, facilitate high levels of economic activities and social interaction. The tertiary corridor could be developed as a lower order mixed-use corridor due to the numerous satellites, dense settlements and other land uses located along this link.


8.2.3.8 Mixed Activity Corridor

• Mixed-use development allows for the development of parcels of land as different land uses on adjacent sites. These corridors must have the threshold to support the development of a mixed-use corridor, in terms of location, the number of settlements it passes, and the populations it serves. Nodal points of activity are likely to develop along this corridor, providing central points for services, economic activities as well as transport services.

The RSS model is summarised in the following diagram:




























Figure 6: The Rural Service System (RSS) Model








































8.3 SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE MODEL


• It is apparent that all recent models primarily have two objectives, firstly meeting basic needs and secondly, improving economic opportunities. All the models looked at above are based on spatial structuring in terms of nodes and networks albeit the terminology and hierarchy differs from model to model.

• The NSDI model can be criticised as having a strong urban bias with the rural focus being limited to social upliftment (primarily in the provision of health and education facilities). Economic upliftment of the rural areas is not emphasised. As the municipal area is largely rural in nature, it is proposed that this NSDI model not be adopted as its model.

• The bases of the eThekwini model in terms of its nodes and corridors can be applied to the municipality. However, the eThekwini model has been developed for a metropolitan area and is largely urban based.

• Although the urban centres are important, the municipality is primarily rural in nature and hence, there is a need to look at strengthening rural activities and economies. The Rural Service System model is therefore the most appropriate model to apply to the municipality.

• The rural service centre model identifies rural service centres as focal points from which a range of comprehensive services can be provided to the poor and marginalised rural people. This model encourages service providers to work together in the integration of service activities, the co-ordination of service provision, reducing cost of services and improving convenience to communities through the spatial integration of services, and, creates economic opportunities at the service delivery points. The spatial hierarchy determines the hierarchy of service provision.

• The appropriateness of this model for the municipality is reinforced by the fact that the Mpumalanga provincial government has defined its (similar) approach to development in its Draft Provincial Rural and Urban Development Strategy. The strategy it has adopted is to develop the rural space economy into a network of inter-connected production and distribution nodes that connect every community in the rural landscape to employment opportunities, and easily accessible market and service centres. The inter-connectedness of nodes and their respective hinterlands will enable local people to utilise available economic potentials to increase their disposable incomes and enhance their social and economic well-being.








8.4 CUSTOMISING THE MODEL


• The Rural Service System (RSS) Model focuses strongly on the rural areas, which is desired because of the large rural composition of the municipal area, but as a consequence, the model falls short in addressing all the development components of the area, since the important urban areas and valuable rural activities such as agriculture, forestry and conservation are not encapsulated in the theory. As a result the model is expanded upon / customised to ensure that all facets are incorporated and planned for.

• The model is expanded beyond the components of rural settlement and connectivity to include the urban areas and valuable rural land. Subsequently, there are three spatial components which constitute the area, viz.:

 the urban area;
 the rural area; and
 the connections

• The diagram below illustrates and defines these components, providing further insight as to the development aim and thrust of each component.



Figure 7: Components of the Spatial Development Framework illustrated conceptually














































8.5 APPLICATION OF THE MODEL AT A DISTRICT LEVEL


• Prior to drafting the Spatial Development Framework the customised model is tested at a district level. Below follows a brief contextualisation thereof.


8.5.1 URBAN AREAS

Diagram 2: Conceptual Urban Areas

• The ‘urban area’ component of the customised model focuses mainly on defining and confirming which are the major urban centres within the area, and is therefore, closely linked to the status quo analysis of the major urban areas.

• The major urban centres are by virtue large and accommodate a diverse range of services and facilities. Its economy is diversified and social services include tertiary delivery, such as secondary schools and hostels, colleges, university satellite campuses, hospitals, fire brigades, courts, etc. Commercial diversification is also evident, and while rural support services and manufacturing exist, personal service delivery, tourism, real estate, banking services and trade and retail are present and generally growing.

• Typically the major urban centres would include Secunda, Ermelo, Standerton, Volksrust, Piet Retief, Carolina, etc.


8.5.2 RURAL AREA

• The rural area comprises two key components, viz.:

 the settlement areas, whether urban or rural in nature, these are the smaller urban areas and rural settlements that are distributed throughout the remainder of the area, and
 the rural land which is cultivated, mined, unused or conserved. The rural land is vitally important for the municipality because of its critical contribution to the primary economic sector, which is key for future sustainability.





8.5.2.1 Settlement

Diagram 3: Rural Settlement

• The RSS model applies the principle of rural hubs and satellites, which may in fact compare to the ranking in the status quo analysis of the minor urban areas and the tertiary urban areas. In applying the model reference will be made to hubs and satellites.

• A hub is an established urban area which provides a definite rural support function. It has access to a fair range of permanent services and has a moderately diversified economy. Services that could typically be accessed in a hub include some retail, a bank, a post office, a clinic (generally no hospital), a police station, a library, pre-primary and primary education. Further diversified services would only be accessible in the major urban centres.

• Typically, the following areas could be classified as hubs: Wakkerstroom, Chrissiesmeer, Balfour, Badplaas, Lothair, Dirkiesdorp, Iswepe, Amsterdam, Amersfoort and Morgenzon.

• The satellites are small rural settlements which have no or only rudimentary services are mostly dormitory and have few if any permanent services. Generally service delivery to the satellites would be mobile, and therefore, occur at scheduled intervals. Such mobile delivery would either originate from the hub or from a major urban centre.

• Here the hierarchy is very important to ensure, for one, that services are accessible, and for another, that duplication and expensive delivery does not occur. The hub is the place where permanent services should be provided so that it fulfils a central place function, while the satellite will always remain reliant on the hub for service delivery to avoid duplication of services in areas which do not have the required threshold to ensure sustainability. To further ensure cost effective delivery, services could be housed in multi-purpose community centres.

• Satellites would remain dormitory and should source their services from the hubs, which should be centrally located, to ease access to services from the satellite to the hub and ease mobile delivery from the hub to the satellite.

• Where there are no satellites in proximity to the hub, the hub should nonetheless provide mobile services to the rural hinterland to ensure that all people have access to social service delivery.








8.5.2.2 Land

Diagram 4: Rural Land

• Rural land use across the District is diverse including commercial farming, tribal land, vast forestry plantations, mining for gold and coal (and other resources), nature conservation, wetlands and bio-diverse fields. The rural area is very valuable, and hence, needs to be protected.

• This protection speaks of more than merely achieving environmental protection. While the environment must be protected and conserved, it is also important to protect commercially viable activities and sustainable living conditions.

• Thus, first and foremost, a balance must be struck between environmental conservation and the primary economic sector to achieve a win-win situation.

• In translating the above, a concept is produced whereby specific, unique and sensitive environmental areas are identified and demarcated for conservation and protection of the natural biome, around which commercial rural activities and life sustaining activities can continue. Thus, harmony is attained making allowances for all activities and protecting that which is important on all fronts. Though the area’s general land use may not change drastically, land use practises should change.

• At a District level it transpires that mining activities should be inward focused meaning that pollution and visual disturbances should be minimised, while some of the commercially farmed land must make way for conservation of the natural biome which prevails in a north-south spine amidst the district, and that forestry must be restricted to its current extent.


8.5.3 CONNECTIVITY

Diagram 5: Connectivity

• Connectivity is important in this area to ensure that traffic continues to move through and within, and to ensure that economic gains from through-traffic are retained.

• However, to facilitate movement and development, which are closely related in the district, two types of corridors have been defined, viz. development/activity corridors and mobility corridors.

• Mobility corridors are generally main routes (such as the Johannesburg-Richards Bay route) which carry vast amounts of traffic accessing ports outside the area. Average speed, safety and convenience of movement are important, and hence, mobility along these routes should be promoted minimising interferes with traffic.

• Two levels of mobility are identifiable viz. higher order and lower order.

• Since the district’s urban centres rely on through-traffic for economic vitality, it is important that roads do not by-pass the urban areas, but continue through them so that they can be transformed into activity corridors.

• Activity corridors are spines of economic activity concentrated along main roads, where development has occurred as a result of the benefits offered, such as visibility and access, to promote economic growth.

• While activity corridors will relate to mobility corridors they will not exclusively exist in relation to mobility corridors. Activity corridors can and should also be identified as spines of development opportunity creating linkage to improve disparate urban form which is evident in all the major urban centres.

• Mobility and activity corridors are therefore, on the one hand mutually exclusive and, on the other hand, interrelated and dependant on one another.

• Development corridors can further play an important role in linking urban areas to, in some way; mend the skewed and disparate urban form. Corridors of development opportunity could be created between an established urban centre and the peripheral low income settlement area to achieve some form of integration and coherence.





























9. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

9.1 INTRODUCTION

• This chapter contains the spatial development framework for Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality. The SDF is the end product of all the foregone research and is summarised as the core entity of this chapter.

• As a prelude to the Local SDF, the first sub-section briefly reflects on how all components of the study have been united, while the second sub-section provides a summary of the District SDF in order to contextualise the Local SDF.

• The core of the chapter centres around the Local SDF.

• Following the Local SDF, are two sub-sections, of which the first lists key interventions forthcoming from the SDF, and the second checks the alignment of the SDF with legislative requirements, the Provincial Growth and Development Strategy and the spatial proposals of adjoining municipalities.

9.2 REVIEW OF PROJECT COMPONENTS AND PROCESS

• The individual components covered in the research and how they fit together to inform the SDF, are shown in the diagram below. The diagram evidences that the SDF is a product of the analysis, development principles, legal requirements, vision and mission and spatial model.




Figure 8: Process components informing the Spatial Development Framework



































• In addition to the above, cognisance should be taken that the local SDF was not compiled in isolation, but formed part of a larger process in which a District SDF and seven local SDFs were compiled, one of which is the Pixley Ka Seme LM SDF.

• As described in Chapter 1, compiling these SDFs was done in an integrated manner to ensure that the SDFs informed one another to achieve a level of uniformity. However, the local SDFs are different given variances in local dynamics and the application of the principles developed during the District SDF.

• In terms of the process, the draft District SDF provided the basis for compiling the Local SDFs, while the Local SDFs, as workshopped and refined by the LMs and consultants served to amend and finalise the District SDF, particularly in respect of key interventions, the nodal hierarchy as well as mobility and activity corridors.


9.3 DISTRICT SDF – SUMMARY

Diagram 7: District Spatial Development Framework

• The summary of the District SDF is thorough, in order to capture the rationale applied in defining the framework and to provide a proper overview of the district, for the local municipality to comprehend its position within the bigger scheme of things.

• The District SDF thus contains the following elements:
 a hierarchy of settlement by defining major urban centres (as part of the urban environment), and hubs and satellites (as part of the rural environment);
 mitigating measures for the rural land to achieve balance between economic prosperity and environmental conservation;
 a differentiation and hierarchy of corridors by defining mobility corridors and activity corridors.

• The summary of the District SDF follows below paving the way for the Local SDF.


9.3.1 MAJOR URBAN CENTRES

9.3.1.1 Ranking of the Major Urban Centres

• The major urban centres in the Gert Sibande District are first order towns at the top of the urban hierarchy providing the widest range of services and facilities to the largest threshold. It serves itself, its rural hinterland and the smaller, remote urban and rural settlements in proximity. Economic activities tend to gravitate to these centres due to mutual benefits which result from concentration such as shared infrastructure, shared markets and down-stream activities. The range of services in the urban centre is directly related to the surrounding threshold, thus, the greater the threshold the greater the services and vice versa. Further diversification leads to services catering for only segments of the greater threshold.

• In defining which towns are major urban centres reference was made to the Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework 1999 in which the majority of the provincial settlements were ranked based on a central place index. The central place index is an output of the combined value of a settlement’s population and business index. The larger the central place index the larger the hinterland it serves, and thus by interpretation, the more major the urban centre.

• While the central place index is not necessarily precise and all-inclusive it provided a base for classification which was refined through local consultation.

• All settlements above a central place index of 1.00 were, for the purposes of this exercise, rated as a major urban centre. The table below lists the ranked major urban centres according to the Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework’s ranking model.

Table 16: Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework Ranked Major Urban Centres

Settlements Central Place Index
Ermelo 3.60
Embalenhle 3.34
Secunda 3.08
Standerton 2.98
Bethal 2.17
Piet Retief 2.15
Evander 1.46
Volksrust 1.29
Iswepe* 1.20
Carolina 1.03
MISF, 1999
* Iswepe has been excluded as a major urban centre and is ranked as a hub, since its physical and economic composition does not in any way compare to the other major centres.

• Not included in the list above or in the MISF’s central place index list is Leandra. Spatially Leandra compares to Evander resembling the same level of commercial diversification, though residentially it is possibly larger. Hence, Leandra, together with Eendrag and Lebogang, has been defined as a major urban centre.

• In addition to the above, two emerging major urban centres were identified, due to the fact that they do not quite correspond with the centres above yet are gradually maturing into tertiary centres. These are Balfour (Dipaleseng LM) and Elukwatini (Albert Luthuli LM).

• The aim for the major urban centres is to, at the very least, retain the current engineering, social, economic and institutional infrastructure, and to strengthen and diversify the economy in order to achieve growth, prosperity and sustainability. Central thereto is the economy and efforts should be focused on economic vitality. The District SDF explores potential economic strengthening opportunities which are contained below. The application of these principles to the relevant major urban centres forms part of the Local SDF discussed hereafter.


9.3.1.2 Economic Strengthening Opportunities

• The economic information below has been extracted from a report titled ‘An Industrial Development Strategy for the Highveld Region in Mpumalanga Province’.

• A fundamental concept which should be applied throughout is ‘industrial clustering’ whereby similar or related industries cluster together to benefit from considerable synergies. Some of these advantages include:

 Concentration of product, material, know-how, expertise and trained manpower;
 Close proximity of material sources;
 Technology interchanges;
 Support services (for maintenance, etc.);
 Safety, health and environmental control measures and technologies;
 Joint ventures for development;
 Possibilities to expand the value-added chain;
 Product and marketing support.

• It is deemed that the following industrial clustering opportunities exist and should be explored:

 Agriculture
 Chemical
 Forestry
 Mining
 Other

• Though these activities relate to the primary economic sector, which prevails in the rural areas, the intention is to achieve industrial clustering in the major urban centres based on these economic sectors. Different sectors will be explored in different urban areas depending on the opportunities which exist.


Agricultural Sector

• While the district is one of South Africa’s strongest agricultural producing regions, it is very weak in further processing agricultural products, contributing only a small percentage to the agro-processing industry. The latter indicates that considerable leakages occur in this sector.

• Opportunities exist for the region to take advantage of its competitive positioning and availability of raw materials. From a transportation cost perspective it is also suitable for agro-industry to be located within the region close to the primary resources. Though proximity to the market is also important it is deemed that the region offers plenty opportunities for small scale agro-processing activities.

• The following type of agro-industries could be established:

 Increased poultry and pig feed manufacturing from maize to promote expansion of the chicken industry and piggeries.
 Textile cluster (wool and cotton), which would engage in wool washing and further down-stream activities such as spinning and weaving, manufacturing of final products such as school wear, knitting wear for the tourism industry, utilisation of waste (lanoline for the chemical industry).
 Oil seed processing to process the full range of oil seeds available in the region. This industry also has important links to animal feed manufacturers who currently import oil cake from neighbouring regions. Medium-term down-stream value-adding activities could further include manufacturing of margarine, mayonnaise, etc. thus, establishment of a food-processing cluster.
 Livestock by-product utilisation whereby hides and skins could be sourced from abattoirs for down-stream manufacturing of shoes, bags, safety shoes, furniture and tourism items.

• SMME opportunities also exist and can include the following:

 Meat processing at smaller scale abattoirs;
 Clothing and blanket manufacturing linked to a textile cluster
 Manufacturing of maize and potato snacks such as chips, popcorn, etc.
 Further down-stream manufacturing of paper and plastic packaging for maize products and animal feed;
 Manufacturing of plastic containers for items such as mayonnaise and margarine, achieving backward linkage.


Chemical Industry

• Sasol is a massive chemical producer and the second largest electricity consumer in South Africa. Owing to technical expertise and available technology in the Secunda area, excellent opportunities for down-stream chemical activities exist.

• Opportunities in expanding the cluster include:

 World-scale methanol plant
 Production of aromatics
 Expansion of ethylene and propylene production

• The above being products which are presently imported from other areas. Although their local consumption is relatively small they offer huge opportunities for export, thereby increasing the areas competitive advantage.

• It is deemed that the exploitation of these opportunities will in turn create further opportunities for value-adding such as resins, octane boosters and fibres. The following type of products could be manufactured as an output:

 Plastic products
 Pharmaceuticals
 Detergents
 Lubricants
 Adhesives
 Paints
 Cosmetics and toiletries
 Metallurgical electrodes
 Fibres (man-made)
 Resins

• Of these plastic manufacturing may be more suited for small and medium enterprises, while paints, cosmetics, fibres, etc. are more suited for large organisations. Thus, the scope of opportunity is wide.

• Opportunities for import replacement revolve around maintenance and process materials, which include machine parts, machine equipment, engineering equipment and consumables.


Forestry

• Forestry accounts as the major activity all along the eastern boundary of the District linking to the sawmilling, pulp and paper, building and mining industries. All these industries are considered strong providing a good base for future growth.

• Expansion of the primary and secondary processing industry is limited, because for one the Lowveld of Mpumalanga province has a well established primary processing industry which handles most of the provincial timber, and for another the aesthetic quality of local timber prohibits secondary processing. However, some opportunities prevail and these include:

 Pallet manufacturing
 Coffins manufacturing
 Wood charcoal manufacturing
 Household articles such as ironing boards, trays, bread boards, etc.
 Low cost pine furniture manufacturing

• Fortunately these enterprises are small scale, need low capital investment and is labour intensive, which is suited for the population profile in the area.


Mining

• Mining plays a prevalent role in the District’s economy as it is a key contributor to the economic sustainability of places such as Secunda, Evander and Ermelo, which use coal in the generation of electricity, and manufacturing of chemical and petro-chemical products.

• Down-stream activities would have to link to the expansion of the electricity and chemical industries, which would largely relate to large scale concerns with high capital investment.

• Gold mining also prevails in the area and though mining itself is highly capital intensive down-stream activities could include jewellery manufacturing. Though there are some hurdles to be overcome they are not insurmountable and if overcome could provide definite district opportunities.

• The mining sector offers several backward linkages / import replacement opportunities in supporting local industry as far as possible. Included therein are the following:

 Protective clothing
 Soaps and polishes
 Boots and shoes
 Vegetables
 Cleaning equipment
 Protective jackets
 Buckets and cans


Other

• A number of unrelated potential opportunities exist which include the following:

 Developing and commercialising traditional skills such as bead work, arts and crafts and design blankets which can be marketed to tourists;
 Better utilisation of animal hives in local leather products to be marketed to tourists;
 Establishment of decentralised fresh produce markets in all main centres to serve the community and to provide access to agricultural products for further value adding, e.g. washing, packaging, and processing.
 Ash processing for the refilling of mines, cement extender, manufacturing of construction aggregate, manufacturing of bricks, production of fertilizer, etc.


9.3.2 RURAL SETTLEMENT

• The rural settlement sub-section follows on from the major urban centres in defining a settlement hierarchy for the district. At the top of the hierarchy are the major urban centres, following which are the hubs and then the satellites.

• Establishing a rural hierarchy is important in stimulating rural productivity, raising rural incomes and strengthening the economic base of the hinterland. The hierarchy of settlements in the poorer and more rural areas is important to ensure maximum access to public services, which should be located at appropriate centres.

9.3.2.1 Hubs

• Hubs are small urban centres which are located within the rural areas, often at the crossroads of two important roads or along one major road possibly in close proximity to a parallel-running railway line. They are fundamentally distribution centres for the rural areas providing a moderate range of services and economic activities. By definition the threshold of a hub is larger than that of a satellite and the hub accommodates a greater variety, higher order and more permanent services than a satellite.

• In terms of physical composition, a hub is often urban in form, comprising residential areas and a business zone. However, because of its rural support role it is compartmentalized under rural settlement.

• Like the process of defining the major urban centres, reference was once again made to the Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework 1999, to assess the ranking of all provincial centres based on the central place index. All centres with a central place index of greater than 1.0 were classified as major urban centres (except for Iswepe), and those with a CPI of less than 1.0 were classified as hubs. However, there are exceptions which are noted below.

Table 17: Classification of Hubs

SETTLEMENTS CENTRAL PLACE INDEX
Iswepe 1.20
Trichardt 0.97
Amsterdam 0.78
Lothair 0.71
Kinross 0.68
Elukwatini Emerging major urban centre
Amersfoort 0.52
Warburton 0.43
Panbult 0.39
Grootvlei 0.37
Badplaas 0.34
Perdekop 0.30
Wakkerstroom 0.28
Morgenzon 0.24
Balfour Emerging major urban centre
Holmdene satellite
Greylingstad 0.17
Breyten 0.16
Val 0.15
Davel 0.12
Chrissiesmeer 0.07
Eendrag (Leandra) Leandra as major urban centre
Daggakraal 0.05
Charl Cilliers 0.03
Dirkiesdorp satellite
Lochiel 0.006
MISF, 1999
It is recognised that the MISF model may not be precise and all-inclusive, but it provides a base for classification which was refined through local consultation comprehensive

• In addition to the above, the following centres were added, since spatially they should either already be defined as hubs, or should in future mature to become fully serviced hubs fulfilling their rural support function:

 Thuthukani
 Sheepmoore
 Ekulindeni
 Dundonald
 Mayflower
 Fernie / Diepdale
 Tjakastad
 Oshoek
 Driefontein
 Rustplaas
 Maphapheni / Malayini
 Brendan Village

• The list of hubs is longer than that of the major urban centres, and hence, there is greater variety in composition and constitution. Upon closer inspection it evidences that the hubs vary in size and composition and have different locational factors, however, they correspond in type and level of service delivery, which ultimately determines their classification and ranking.

• All the hubs should be developed to fulfil a rural support function, which means that each hub must accommodate the primary range of social and economic services. A likely list is included below. The facilities listed in italics are of a higher order and would be present in the larger hubs where the surrounding threshold is correspondingly larger.

Table 18: Possible Hub Facilities

CATEGORY FACILITY
Education Crθches
Primary school(s)
Secondary school
Limited sports fields
Health Clinic
Hospital
Protection Police station
Court / tribal court
Community Community library
Welfare facility
Pension pay point
Postal Post office
Post boxes
Economic Limited clothing retail
Supermarket
Liquor store
Fuel station / Public garage
Agricultural support services
Engineering workshop(s)
Small-scale manufacturing
Bank / Teller machine
Localised commercial activities (may include tourism oriented facilities)
Transport Taxi terminus
Taxi service
Bus service
With appropriate support facilities
Informal trading space
Public open space Park for active and passive recreation
Limited sport facilities
Other Graveyard
Dumping ground
Information centre
The facilities listed in italics are of a higher order and would be present in the larger hubs where the surrounding threshold is correspondingly larger.


• Cognisance should be taken that all the facilities above should be permanent in order for these to provide mobile services to the hinterland or satellites.

• In addition access from the rural hinterland or surrounding satellites is important and must be facilitated. Access does not only require the availability of road infrastructure, which already generally exists, it also requires public transport to achieve the movement of people into the hub and back to their place of residents.

• Though this is an important requirement, it may not be a simple task to ensure transport. The economic viability of these hubs is limited which implies that there are limited transport ventures. Accordingly, it may be necessary for local government to become involved in facilitating public transport between the hub and satellites or hinterland on fixed schedules. This matter will have to be consulted at local level.

• Another matter to be addressed in the future development and possible expansion of the hubs is that were hubs already show a disparate urban form, future development must achieve infill to guarantee linkage between the various components of the hub.


9.3.2.2 Satellites

• All other remaining settlements are categorised as satellites. These are small and remote settlements scattered in the rural areas far from the major urban centres. Essentially they constitute a dormitory grouping of residential units in a very rural environment having access only to very rudimentary or no services.

• Satellites are most prominent in the north-eastern corner of the District abutting the border of Swaziland. Here it is vital that a rural hierarchy be established and enforced to ensure that services and facilities, which are scarce be effectively distributed.

• Although, in a perfect world, all areas would have their own services and facilities, such just is not financially feasible in the South African context, and hence, service delivery has to be prioritised. Such priority therefore lies within the hubs, to enable them to be fully fledged service centres for the satellites.

• The satellites would therefore source their services from the hubs, and the hubs would provide mobile service delivery to the satellites on scheduled intervals. Hence, where private mobility and public transport are unavailable the hub would extend itself into the rural area to ensure that people have access to vital services, such as education and health.

• Typical mobile satellite services would include:

 Mobile clinic
 Farm school
 Mobile library
 Post boxes
 Routine police patrol
 General dealer
 Informal sports grounds (e.g. soccer field)
 Taxi / bus stop

• Where the rural hinterland is not made up of scattered satellites, as is typical of the remainder of the District, the hubs would fulfil the same function as otherwise, but mobile delivery would be to the farms where very localised settlement concentrations occur.

• Mobility from the satellites or rural hinterland to the hubs may be problematic as the communities are by and large poor, and so do not have access to private transport and find it difficult to afford public transport. Local government efforts will have to be made to schedule weekly trips between the hubs and satellites or rural hinterland which are affordable and may therefore have to be subsidised.










9.3.3 RURAL LAND

9.3.3.1 Conservation

• From a conservation point of view, the formation of ecological corridors and linkages are proposed in order to retain and protect areas with conservation potential. Ecological corridors provide an important pathway for fauna and flora and aid in sustaining biodiversity in an area which contains sensitive grassland characteristics.

• Any implementation of corridors and other conservation interventions should be accompanied by comprehensive Environmental Management Plans and Strategic Environmental Assessments where necessary.

9.3.3.2 Agriculture

• With regards to agriculture, it is imperative that the agricultural sector is well maintained and managed. Agriculture sustains the primary economic sector of the entire Gert Sibande District Municipality and is a major source of income generation for the local communities. It is therefore extremely important to ensure that agricultural practices are carried out effectively and correctly to sustain the sector.

• The spread of agriculture into sensitive areas should be curbed and managed through the use of Environmental Management Plans and other Management systems. Land use practices should be refined in order to retain viable agricultural land which is scarce.

9.3.3.3 Forestry

• Forestry is a major land use in the Gert Sibande District Municipality and contributes a major portion to the economy of the Municipality. Forestry areas are situated mainly along the eastern regions of the Municipality and inflict a major impact on the surrounding environment as well as several wetland systems. Future expansion as well as current plantations should be managed well in order to ensure as little impact on the environment as possible.

• Do to the major impacts that forestry inflicts, it is imperative that forestry plantations area managed appropriately in order to avoid further damage to the environment.



9.3.3.4 Mining

• Mining has a major impact on the environment but is a major contributor to the economy of the District Municipality. Future expansion of the industry is expected which will allow for economic growth in the area. However, this must be accompanied by intensive management and rehabilitation plans.

• Mining is crucial to the economy of the greater Gert Sibande District Municipality and has possible opportunities to expand in the future. This should be allowed to proceed with rigorous management in place in order to mitigate impacts and allow for future rehabilitation


9.3.4 CORRIDORS

• Two types of corridors can be defined, viz. mobility corridors and activity corridors. The details of each are discussed below.

9.3.4.1 Mobility Corridors

• The primary function of a mobility corridor is to facilitate the movement of people, goods and services effectively, efficiently, speedily, safely and conveniently. Mobility corridors typically carry high volumes of traffic and heavy loads through major centres either within the area or to centres outside of the District.

• Spatially two objectives are to be met by mobility corridors:

 For one, ensure good mobility, through the construction of high quality infrastructure, the maintenance of roads and where necessary the expansion of road surfaces to allow for double carriage ways.
 For another, retain the economic spin-offs enjoyed by the urban centres affected by the mobility corridors ensuring that their economies can be sustained. Thus, none of the mobility corridors should become so mobile that they end up by-passing the centres for the sake of mobility. Such an end-result will cause the demise of many of the centres.

• Mobility and activity go hand-in-hand, and accordingly, all future planning must realise this interrelationship.

• A hierarchy of mobility has been determined thus distinguishing between high and low order mobility.


High-Order Mobility Corridors

• Two high-order mobility corridors have been identified owing to the large volumes and heavy loads carried on these routes.

• The one is the N3, of which only a small portion cuts across the western point of the District.

• The other is the Richards Bay-Johannesburg corridor (N17/N2) which passes through Leandra, Kinross, Trichardt, Bethal, Ermelo and Piet Retief.

• Although updated travel statistics could not be obtained this route certainly dominates within the Gert Sibande District context and is becoming increasingly competitive with respect to the N3 Johannesburg-Durban corridor.

• Three emerging high-order mobility corridors have been identified, these are:

 The R23 from Volksrust to Balfour (linking Richards Bay, New Castle to Heidelberg / N3);
 the Ermelo-Oshoek corridor (N17 which is a tourism and timber freight route); and
 R35 from Bethal to the N4 (conceptualised in terms of the Maputo Corridor).


Low-Order Mobility Corridors

• The vast majority of roads have been classified as low-order mobility corridors. These include a mix of national and provincial roads. Though there are design standard differences between national and provincial roads, their classification is largely founded on use rather than design. These are:

 N11 (Newcastle-Middelburg corridor which links Volksrust and Ermelo);
 R51;
 R54;
 R50;
 R38;
 R39;
 R35 (from Amersfoort to Bethal) ;
 R36;
 R65;
 R33;
 R543;
 R547;
 R546;
 R548
 R541
 Road from N17 to R65 and N2 via Lothair.
 Road from Badplaas to Elukwatini
 Road from Carolina to Chrissiesmeer

• Intercepting these mobility corridors are local activity corridors, which is where the mobility corridor enters the urban environment, moves through and exits. This zone is a critical development area as it enjoys spin-offs generated by the through-traffic, and these benefits should be harnessed.

9.3.4.2 Activity Corridors

• Over and above the activity corridors which intercept the mobility corridors opportunity also exists for activity corridors to be established within the urban environments of the major urban centres and where applicable the hubs.

• Most of the settlements reflect a distorted urban form. The old established area forms the urban and economic centre of the town and the township is located on the periphery removed and marginalised from services, facilities and opportunities.

• Activity corridors can and should be established to provide a crucial link between these two settlement components to, for one, achieve some degree of integration and for another, to move services, facilities and opportunities closer to the disadvantaged thereby assisting in the upliftment process.

• Since activity corridors occur at a more localised scale these will be discussed in detail in the local SDF.


9.3.4.3 Rail Corridors

• A well established rail network criss-crosses the District, and whilst it is a vital means of freight transport, it does not nearly have the same spatial impacts as roads, particularly at a district level.

• Rail transport in the District is geared towards freight, and not passenger transport. There is only one passenger service and it follows the alignment of the R23 offering only one stop in Standerton. Thus, spatial development responding to rail passengers is highly restricted.

• Freight transport also has limited spatial impacts, though the type of freight, origin, destination and distance of travel varies greatly. Freight per se does not offer new opportunities, it is people associated with such freight that explore opportunities. Thus, rail transport provides economic benefits but few spatial impacts.

• Furthermore, the rail network provides corridors of connectivity which are important for the livelihood of the District, and hence the state of transport must be maintained.








9.4 LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

Diagram 6: Local Spatial Development Framework

9.4.1 INTRODUCTION

• The District SDF provides the backdrop and rationale in terms of which the local SDF has been compiled. The local SDF comprises three main sections. The first describes the hierarchy of settlement, the second the rural land proposals and the third the corridors.

• Pixley Ka Seme is a vastly rural area with comparatively little road infrastructure criss-crossing the area. The rural landscape is a combination of maize crops and grazing though grazing dominates.

• Generally the topography is relatively flat in the west, changing towards the east becoming more undulating. The change in topographical landscape brings with it a change in land use as the eastern areas are typified by forestry and a higher concentration of conservation features.

• Volksrust which is its largest urban area is dispositioned being located on the provincial boundary with KwaZulu Natal.


9.4.2 HIERARCHY OF SETTLEMENT

9.4.2.1 Major Urban Centre

• There is only one major urban centre in Pixley Ka Seme and this is Volksrust. The town is located on the provincial boundary with KwaZulu Natal and is thus peripheral within its own LM. The town was established around the crossing of the R23 and N11, which remain important transportation routes.

• In this respect Volksrust is strategically located on the N11/R23 corridor which is regarded as a high-order mobility corridor across provincial boundaries. This corridor, like the N17/N2, is a Gauteng-Richards Bay freight route and is increasingly becoming important in respect of tourism.

• Though Volksrust classifies as a major urban centre it has significant competition from other proximate major urban centres, in particular Ermelo (Msukaligwa) and New Castle (KwaZulu Natal Amajuba DM). These centres offer more diversified services and facilities, and hence, there is an outflow of capital from the LM to the surrounding areas (either to the north or the south).

• Nonetheless, the economy though relatively localise seems to be stable.

• However, ever increasing pressures are placed on these centres to support the smaller urban centres and rural hinterland, and hence, economic development opportunities must be sought as a matter of priority.


Economic Opportunities

• Given the dominance of commercial farming, particularly grazing, the presence of Majuba Power Station, forestry and the emergence of tourism, several avenues can be investigated for economic opportunities.

• Agro-industry opportunities could include:

 Increased poultry and pig feed manufacturing from maize to promote expansion of the chicken industry and piggeries.
 Textile cluster (wool and cotton), which would engage in wool washing and further down-stream activities such as spinning and weaving, manufacturing of final products such as school wear, knitting wear for the tourism industry, utilisation of waste (lanoline for the chemical industry).
 Oil seed processing to process the full range of oil seeds available in the region. This industry also has important links to animal feed manufacturers who currently import oil cake from neighbouring regions. Medium-term down-stream value-adding activities could further include manufacturing of margarine, mayonnaise, etc. thus, establishment of a food-processing cluster.
 Livestock by-product utilisation whereby hides and skins could be sourced from abattoirs for down-stream manufacturing of shoes, bags, safety shoes, furniture and tourism items.
 The opening of another abattoir, whether it be in Volksrust or Amersfoort. In addition thereto small scale activities should be initiated.

• SMME opportunities also exist and can include the following:

 Meat processing at smaller scale abattoirs;
 Clothing and blanket manufacturing linked to a textile cluster
 Manufacturing of maize and potato snacks such as chips, popcorn, etc.
 Further down-stream manufacturing of paper and plastic packaging for maize products and animal feed;
 Manufacturing of plastic containers for items such as mayonnaise and margarine, achieving backward linkage.

• Due to the presence of Majuba Power Station backward linkage / import replacement opportunities could exist. These opportunities could include the local manufacture and provision of listed items to Eskom.

 Protective clothing
 Soaps and polishes
 Boots and shoes
 Vegetables
 Cleaning equipment
 Protective jackets
 Buckets and cans

• Forestry provides other opportunities, which can include:

 Pallet manufacturing
 Coffins manufacturing
 Wood charcoal manufacturing
 Household articles such as ironing boards, trays, bread boards, etc.
 Low cost pine furniture manufacturing

• Fortunately these enterprises are small scale, need low capital investment and is labour intensive, which is suited for the population profile in the area.

• Tourism is a totally under-explored avenue, which can easily be tapped into. There are several opportunities for government and private individuals which can be successful. In addition the municipality could become involved in facilitating LED in this regard. Such could include arts and crafts manufacture and the like.

• Given the extent of LED proposals and need for small-scale enterprises it may be valuable to investigate the relevance of constructing industrial hives, as start-up factories for entrepreneurs.

• It is vitally important that whatever LED initiatives are undertaken that such be done in conjunction with basic life and business skills training, since the aim of LED projects is to achieve long term sustainability.


Spatial Development Proposals for Volksrust

Diagram 6.1: Volksrust

• In terms of the DFA principles urban infill is necessary and a priority. Some infill development is evident in Volksrust, while potential for sprawl also exists.

• Vukuzakhe has grown towards the R543 and is gradually filling in all available land. This growth is supported and should continue as such. Growth to the south should be limited due to prohibitive environmental factors, and though it may appear to achieve integration, the residence will in fact remain displaced.

• Other residential growth should be directed towards the R543 as indicated on the plan to prevent sprawling northward or westward growth.

• Owing to economic stability little new proposals of activity corridors and the like can be made. The present activity spine along the main roads should be retained and where relevant upgraded.

• A potential new industrial areas is shown on the plan along the R543 opposite Vukuzakhe. The timeframe for development of this area is unknown and should be facilitated by local government.

• Near Volksrust a new game reserve is being planned and should contributed to the tourism drive in the area form which Volksrust could benefit.


9.4.2.2 Hubs

• There are four hubs in Pixley Ka Seme LM, of which Daggakraal and Wakkerstroom are most relevant:

 Amersfoort, is a small urban centre located at the cross roads of the R35 and the N11 between Volksrust and Ermelo. The town established as a result of the coal mining in the vicinity and is now also dependant on Majuba Power Station. Most growth is happening in Daggakraal which is in proximity.
 Daggakraal is a very large urban settlement located to the east of the N11 between Amersfoort and Volksrust. It accommodates approximately 38 000 people which is near a third of the total Pixley Ka Seme LM population. By sheer size it has been classified as a hub. It has a range of social services, but catering for the total number of people, need for more and a higher level of diversified services exists. Equally a need for physical upgrades exists including improved sanitation services (together with new sewer works), water reticulation and refuse removal.
 Economically the hub is unsustainable as it has a very limited base which has not developed owing to the hub’s inaccessibility. However, planning is underway for the tarring of the access road from the N11 to Daggakraal near Amersfoort. Need for skills training and employment opportunities is very high on the list of priorities for Daggakraal.
 Perdekop, is a small hub located along the R23 between Volksrust and Standerton. The by-passing of the R23 has led to economic decline and it is deemed this could be countered with the establishment of a truck-stop at the town. This will provide a drawing card for the hub and will make provision for truck-stopovers within this mobility corridor.

• The establishment of multi-purpose community centres is important within the hubs and such development should be actively sought.

9.4.2.3 Satellites

• There are no satellites in Pixley Ka Seme. Instead the hubs (should) serve the rural hinterland making service provision to individual farming communities easy and accessible.





9.4.3 RURAL LAND

• Under rural Land the whole spectrum of rural land activities are discussed and planned for. These include conservation of the natural environment, agriculture, forestry and mining.

• New development within the Municipality must aim to be sympathetic to the environmental issues pertinent to the area and aim to aid initiatives in place to conserve sensitive environments. This being to ultimately achieve an acceptable balance between new developments and the environment.

• It is important to remember that sometimes there will be a trade-off between conservation and economic growth. If any specific area is instrumental to the economic growth of the country, it is likely that conservation will take a back seat and vice versa. These economic activities must however aim to protect and rehabilitate wherever possible.

9.4.3.1 Conservation

• The Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality has few conservation areas but is important in that it links directly to the Ekangala Grassland Biopshere Reserve which is crucial to conserving the grassland biome. High lying areas within the municipality represent untouched natural areas and offer a good opportunity to link areas with conservation potential.

• Seme Local Municipality incorporates the important wetland system of Wakkerstroom with several small conservation areas in the surrounds. To link Langfontein, Kombewaria, Oudehoutdraai, Ossewakop, Wakkerstroom Nature Reserve, Oshoek and Tafelkop is realistic and will add to the biodiversity of the area. It would be more of a challenge to link Paardeplaats Nature Reserve and Mooibron to the before mentioned areas and should be the subject of a Strategic Environmental Assessment, where workshops are held with land owners to discuss these issues. High lying areas in the Municipality can be used to link these conservation areas with those in neighbouring municipalities.

• In order to mitigate the impacts of this land use as indicated earlier in this report, it is suggested that the following actions be implemented:
 Undertaking of a Strategic Environmental Assessment with specific Environmental Management Plans to formalise an ecological corridor as indicated on the attached maps.
 Greater liaison with the farming communities to ensure wetlands on private farms are adequately protected.
 The hot-spot areas and the potential species based reserve network design provide a spatial framework for sustainable biodiversity. Conservation management must extend beyond site-limited mitigation by addressing the large ecological systems of which biological diversity is part.
 Greater liaison with and involvement from the forestry companies in the rehabilitation and protection of wetlands in forestry areas.
 Greater involvement from the government in assisting the private sector in establishing and maintaining protected areas.
 Greater liaison between the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Planning Departments in Council and the relevant government department.
 The linkage and protection of ecological hotspots through biosphere reserves and transfrontier parks has become an important approach to conservation. Spatial planning needs to acknowledge these ecological hotspots by facilitating conservation efforts, providing funding and motivation. The interaction of government and the private sector is a key to the success of these conservation efforts. It is strongly recommended that the municipality undertake a Strategic Environmental Assessment to assist in this conservation effort.
 Improved management of sewage in the district
 Greater liaison with farming communities to improve farming techniques
 Greater liaison with farmers to restrict or control agricultural activities in the areas with sensitive water resources
 Liaison with farmers to rehabilitate impacted agricultural land
 Ensuring that these activities only take place in areas zones for these activities and that waste generated is correctly disposed of at licensed landfill sites.

9.4.3.2 Agriculture

• Little change in agriculture is foreseen in the short to long term. Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality has a well-established agricultural base which sustains most of the primary economic sector of the area.

• In order to mitigate the impacts of this land use as indicated earlier in this report, it is suggested that the following actions be implemented. It should be the intention of the SDF to assist in achieving the goals listed above. Where agriculture prevails in the conceptual conservation corridor certain mitigating measures need to be applied, though it would be good if these measures could be applied throughout. The following mitigation measures are suggested:
 Undertaking of a Strategic Environmental Assessment with issue-specific Environmental Management Plans to deal with identified issues.
 Greater liaison with farming communities to improve farming techniques
 Greater liaison with farmers to restrict or control agricultural activities in the areas important for biodiversity conservation
 Liaison with farmers to rehabilitate impacted agricultural land.
 Greater liaison between the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Planning Departments in Council and the relevant government department





9.4.4 CORRIDORS

9.4.4.1 Mobility Corridors

In terms of the District SDF the following mobility corridors exists in Pixley Ka Seme LM.


High-Order Mobility Corridor

• The R23 has been categorised as an emerging high-order mobility corridor which is relevant for Volksrust, particularly in conjunction with the N11, which has been ranked by the Amajuba DM as a high-order corridor.

• The N11/R23 corridor, hence, is an important freight and tourism transport route. In fact it provides an alternative to the N17/N2 and N3 Gauteng / Richard’s Bay / Durban routes.


Low-Order Mobility Corridors

• The following are low-order mobility corridors:

 N11 (from Volksrust to Ermelo);
 R543 (from Volksrust to Piet Retief);
 R35

• Most of these roads have an important role to play in the transportation of coal from the mines to the Majuba Power Station.

• Presently the R543 from Volksrust to Vrede is partially tarred and therefore carries limited traffic. However, proposals for the tarring of the road are being considered and should these be successful the road will certainly benefit Volksrust. The Vrede connection will provide a direct route from the N3 to Piet Retief and hence, Mozambique and northern KwaZulu Natal which will attract more people through the area. More people generally equates with more development and higher diversification.

9.4.4.2 Activity Corridors

• Only two activity corridors have been identified, both of which are in Volksrust and centre around the main roads.

• An activity corridor has been identified at and along the intersection of the R23 and N11 covering much of the existing CBD. Though this encompasses and existing area, the focus of this activity corridor would be more on upgrading and maintaining the corridor.

• Thoughts in this regard tend towards the creation of a CID (City Improvement District), whereby funds are collected from existing land owners as part of their monthly rates billings and such funds are used by a Section 21 Company for the upgrading and beautification of the designated area.

• The second activity corridor has been identified along the R543 to Wakkerstroom at the potential industrial development area opposite Vukuzakhe. The development of this corridor is dependant on local economic growth and will only occur once growth has been established.

9.4.4.3 Rail Corridor

• The rail line from Volksrust via Wakkerstroom and Daggakraal to Amersfoort is in disuse;

• However, a new railway line is being planned from Witbank to Majuba power station which would be a dedicated coal transport line. This line will have spin-offs during construction which will taper down when the line becomes operational.


9.5 KEY INTERVENTIONS

• The key interventions are areas / projects that are in need of immediate intervention because, inter alia, major social or environmental problems are looming, an opportunity needs to be harnessed or a community has been neglected. These key interventions are an output of the SDF, but instead of being a comprehensive list of projects as is typical with an IDP, the key interventions aim to focus attention on critical issues that need to be addressed as a matter of urgency.

• Typical intervention actions would include a study to address a potential conflict between development and environmental conservation. Interventions may also be proposed to compact an existing urban form in order to increase the efficiency of service provision, a specialised study or a monitoring and control action.

• It was explained in the District SDF that the implementation of the LUMS process would be an incremental one, possibly starting from major urban centres, activity corridors and other areas that are experiencing development pressures. It is anticipated that key intervention areas will also be the focus of detailed LUMS assessments.


9.5.1 LOCAL ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF VOLKSRUST

• As mentioned previously, economic growth in Volksrust is critical, for one so that it can cope with the pressures placed on it by its own LM and for another to provide a measure of competition for its main rivals (New Castle and Ermelo).

• A whole list of economic opportunities are contained in the SDF, but the list is worthless if efforts are not directed to achieving these. It is hence suggested that a dedicated local economic assessment be undertaken which investigates what the real opportunities are and how such is to be implemented.

• It is important that LED forms part of this study and that efforts be made to transfer skills and establish small scale industry. There may even be a chance for Volksrust to become the LED / small scale industry centre of the District.


9.5.2 UPGRADING OF DAGGAKRAAL

• The physical, social and economic upgrade of Daggakraal is a major priority for the LM. Given the high concentration of people and their limited resources all efforts should be made to upgrade the settlement on all fronts.

• In the foregone discussion of Volksrust a whole range of economic opportunities were discussed, many of which relate to LED opportunities. These opportunities must be investigated for Daggakraal to determine how and where economic upliftment can be achieved.

• Cognisance should be taken that these opportunities must be comprehensively developed in that technical skills training is undertaken together with life and business skills transfer. A holistic program must be followed.

• It is suggested that a dedicated project be undertaken for Daggakraal which provides a planning and implementation framework for the settlement.


9.5.3 WAKKERSTROOM / TAFELBERG AREA

• The Wakkerstroom / Tafelberg area is identified as a key intervention area because of its major conservation value and ecotourism potential. The wetlands in the area are centres of biodiversity and are one of the few remaining peatland wetlands in South Africa. It is imperative to conserve these wetlands to protect the biodiversity within them and to ensure the correct hydrological functioning of the wetlands and the rivers emanating from them. The ecotourism potential (birding, hiking, scenic value etc) of the area also makes Wakkerstroom valuable to the economy of the municipality.

• Similarly the Tafelberg offers immense conservation and eco-tourism potential which should be investigated. Though the general area, but in particular Wakkerstroom, is starting to get regional attention, it is important to brand the area and market it widely in the tourism industry. The area is certainly known for its birding but other opportunities also exists, such as hiking trails, 4x4 trails, camping and even game.

9.5.4 RIVER FLOODPLAIN WETLAND AREAS

• River floodplains and the wetlands found within them are identified as key intervention areas due to their high biodiversity levels and their key hydrological role in attenuating flood flows, purifying the river water and ensuring the perennial flow of the river. In the context of Pixley Ka Seme Municipality, the floodplain wetlands found along the Vaal River in the north west of the municipality, and the Klip River in the south west are centres of biodiversity and play a very important role in the hydrological functioning of the upper Vaal River catchment. The Vaal and Klip River Floodplains have the potential to function as key ecological linkages. Correct land use management practices should be implemented to protect these floodplain wetlands.

9.5.5 RIDGES

• Ridges are important areas where levels of biodiversity are generally high. Due to their topography ridges have also largely not been affected by human land use impacts. Many high lying areas remain in a fairly pristine condition and have the potential to function as a key ecological link. In Pixley Ka Seme, the ridges of the escarpment along the southern boundary, as well as the Elandsberg and Langeberg near Amersfoort high conservation and ecotourism potential. Correct land use management practices should be implemented to conserve these ridges.


9.5.6 RIVER FLOODPLAIN WETLAND AREAS

• River floodplains and the wetlands found within them are identified as key interventions due to their high biodiversity levels and their key hydrological role in attenuating flood flows, purifying the river water and ensuring the perennial flow of the river.

• In the context of Lekwa, the floodplain wetlands found along the Vaal River in the east of the municipality, and the Klip River on the southern boundary are centres of biodiversity and play a very important role in the hydrological functioning of the upper Vaal River catchment. The Vaal and Klip River Floodplains have the potential to function as key ecological linkages. Correct land use management practices should be implemented to protect these floodplain wetlands.




9.6 ALIGNMENT

This section has been included into the report to show the way in which the SDF relates to the guiding principles and laws as contained in chapter 2. As such, this section refers to the following:

• The nature of compliance with legislative requirements
• The nature of compliance with the policy elements contained in the Mpumalanga PGDS
• The spatial alignment with the neighbouring administrative (municipal) entities.


9.6.1 LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS

• In this section, a number of legal requirements for development are listed. In response to the listing, the nature of compliance of the SDF is noted by way of showing those principles or requirements that are met by the SDF.

Table 19: Legislative Alignment

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS SDF PRINCIPLES APPLIED
Adherence to the principles of the DFA.
• Promotes integrated land development in urban and rural areas by proposed connectivity.
• Encourages optimal use of existing resources by promoting concentration.
• Discouraging urban sprawl by proposing infill development and increased concentration.
• Correcting historically distorted settlement patterns.
• Encourages environmental sustainability and conservation of resources.

Reflect the desired patterns of land use.
• Spatial development proposals are made in light of environmental constraints. More detailed land use patterns to be reflected by the LUMS.

Address the spatial reconstruction of the municipality.
• Spatial distortions in the municipal structure are addressed by the proposed compacting of the municipal form as well as improved access, thereby increasing access to services and infrastructure.

Provide strategic guidance with respect to location and nature of development.
• The SDF provides guidance in respect of major urban centres, key intervention areas, activity corridors as well as environmental constraints.
Contain basic guidelines for a LUMS.
• SDF provides points of departure for the preparation of LUMS. Priority areas for the preparation of LUMS are explained.

A capital investment framework. • This is a component of the IDP. However, it should be linked with the SDF in such a manner to reflect programmes and budgets to, amongst others, (1) redress spatial imbalances, (2) promote economic diversification at economic nodes and (3) improve access to centres of employment.

A strategic assessment of the environmental impact of the SDF.
• A detailed environmental analysis was prepared that informed the preparation of the SDF. The environmental analysis also alluded to the need for preparing a SEA for the area prior to the preparation of the LUMS.

Must include a visual representation of desired spatial form with respect to:

Location of public and private land development
Indicate desired and undesired use of land
Delineate the urban edge/s
Indicate strategic intervention areas.
• The SDF shows the major and minor urban areas as well as areas of smaller urban settlement.
• At the local level, the SDF shows key intervention areas that have been determined by considering constraints and opportunities for development.
• The exact location of public and private sector investment has to be guided by the IDP and reflected in the respective LUMS.


9.6.2 POLICY ALIGNMENT – PROVINCIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

Table 20: Policy Framework

KEY CHALLENGES SDF PRINCIPLES APPLIED
Economic Development • Within urban centres, activity corridors are proposed as well as areas for further economic expansion.
• The interrelationship between the environment and tourism is considered as the latter is a means to generate revenue.
• Cognisance is taken of agricultural development in terms of its role in the economy as well as potentials in respect of cropping, irrigation and forestry.
• Proposals for economic beneficiation (economic strengthening), linked to existing economic activities, are made.

Development Infrastructure • Minimum basic levels of services are proposed for the urban hierarchy.
• Spatial proposals in respect of housing development are made to (1) compact the spatial urban form and (2) ensure access to a minimum level of service.

Social Development • Minimum basic levels of services are proposed for the urban hierarchy as well as the rural land in respect of, amongst others, health, education, sport and recreation.
• The provision of land for economic expansion contributes towards addressing unemployment which is one of the causes of crime.
• An assessment of areas of cultural or natural significance that need to be protected is provided.

Sustainable Environmental Development • The SDF makes reference of the high waste production, particularly hazardous waste from mining operations. Appropriate actions have to be taken to control this at industry specific level.
• Areas are identified that have high levels of air pollution where settlement is not appropriate.
• The prevalence of endemism is noted and proposals made in respect of environmental corridors and linkages.

Good Governance • Not addressed in the SDF. Part of the IDP Institutional Framework.

Human Resource Development • Not addressed in the SDF. Part of the IDP Institutional Framework.


















9.6.3 SPATIAL ALIGNMENT WITH ADJOINING MUNICIPALITIES

Table 21: Spatial Framework
MUNICIPALITY ALIGNMENT
Msukaligwa LM • Aligned through Gert Sibande District SDF.
Lekwa LM • Aligned through Gert Sibande District SDF.
Thabo Mofutsane District Municipality • No conflicting land uses have been proposed that would affect Thabo Mofutsane DM. In fact proposals to protect and conserve the Klip River should certainly benefit the District and achieve continuum.

Amajuba District Municipality • The strengthening of Volksrust may work against Amajuba DM, since the latter receives and inflow of capital from Pixley Ka Seme.
• However, such should in the long term be beneficial in achieving ensure levels of sustainability.

Zululand District Municipality • There is no conflict in land uses between Zululand DM and Pixley Ka Seme.
• The proposed conservation of the Tafelberg will be mutually beneficial for both.

Mkhondo LM • Aligned through Gert Sibande District SDF.


9.7 CONCLUSION

• The Spatial Development Framework has drawn together all the pieces of work done to date amalgamating it into a sensible spatial pattern to provide a framework for future development and hence, decision-making.

• Owing to the relatively stagnant economic base of the municipality few dramatic new development proposals can be put forward. As a result the thrust of the Spatial Development Framework tends more towards non-spatial principles, than to the spatial allocation of land for new land uses.

• The Spatial Development Framework, consequently, reflects much of the status quo, but importantly provides new insight to a hierarchy of development for settlement and movement, and provides a new basis for environmental conservation in respect of a designated corridor.

• The non-spatial principles are very important as these centre around:

 Diversifying the economy
 Creating economic clusters
 Changing land use practices in environmentally sensitive areas
 Engaging and enforcing environmental management plans for mining and forestry
 Defining corridors of movement and activity
 Establishing a hierarchy of service provision

• In totality the Spatial Development Framework provides a clear basis for future sectoral planning and management of the District.



10. LAND USE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

10.1 WHAT IS A LUMS?

• While the preparation of a Spatial Development Framework is guided by the MSA Regulations (796/Aug 2001), there are no specific policies, guidelines or regulations to date that guide the formulation of Land Use Schemes in Mpumalanga . As a result, the guidelines in this section are predominantly based on extensive research undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal by the (then) Town and Regional Planning Commission, which culminated in the KwaZulu-Natal Land Use Management System, Guideline Manual, June 2001.

• LUMS means Land Use Management System, which is the combination of all the tools and mechanisms used by a municipality to manage the way in which land is used and developed. Such tools and mechanisms include Land Use Schemes; by-laws; licensing; rates and general property information .

• The management of land use is a mechanism used by municipalities in order to create safe and liveable environments. One of the primary tools used for control of land use and development of land and buildings are land use schemes and other plans. The Land Use Scheme Plan reflects intended land uses on a map. A land use scheme is prepared for all the land under a municipality’s jurisdiction and set the rules and procedure for land development.

• In order to prevent uncoordinated development and manage the impact of the development on each site on neighbouring sites and surrounding areas ; the scheme consists of a plan and a document that regulate land in two ways:

 Through stipulating permitted land uses for each site within the municipality; and
 Putting in place development controls in terms of the shape, size and position of buildings.


10.2 WHAT ARE THE AIMS OF A LUMS?

• The purpose of preparing a LUMS is to promote co-ordinated, harmonious and environmentally sustainable development. This is important in order to achieve:

 A Healthy Living Environment: through separation of land uses which cause a nuisance and pollution and provision of open space and community facilities.

 Safety: controlling the development of land uses that are harmful to our health ensures that safety is attained.

 Conservation: this includes preservation of buildings and sites that are of historical significance.

 Order: to prevent conflict in land use management, order in development should be promoted. This means that incompatible land uses should be separated and compatible land uses be clustered.

 Amenity: this refers to creating pleasant living environments.

 Convenience: in terms of location of employment, community and other opportunities.

 General Welfare: adequate provision of services and facilities and creation of safe and healthy environments.

 Efficiency and Economy: this refers to maximum use of scarce resources that are available in an area.

 Participation of people in managing land.


10.2.1 Objectives of LUMS’

• In order to achieve a spatial form that has the above mentioned characteristics, spatial planning should seek to achieve LUMS’ objectives which can include:

 Compliance with the principles of the White Paper which includes sustainability, equity, efficiency, integration and fair and good governance.

 To link land use and environmental management with development planning.

 To provide mechanisms to:

 accommodate desirable land uses;
 provide a framework to resolve conflict between different land uses;
 promote certainty of land use;
 promote efficient use of land;
 promote efficient movement of persons and goods;
 promote economic activity;
 protect the amenity of adjacent land uses;
 protect natural resources including agricultural resources;
 protect cultural resources and give due consideration to the diversity of communities;
 protect unique areas or features; and
 manage land generally, including change of land use.


10.3 LEGISLATION AND GUIDELINES

• As discussed in chapter 3, all municipalities are obligated to prepare an Integrated Development Plan (IDP) for its area of jurisdiction in terms of the Municipal Systems Act (Act 32 of 2000). A key component of an Integrated Development Plan is the preparation of a Spatial Development Framework that contains a broad Land Use Management System (LUMS) that can be applied to the whole municipality. Land Use Schemes are developed based on numerous aspects identified in the IDP and reflected visually on the SDF. Land Use Schemes reflect this information in greater detail, showing the details for every individual site on a plan.

• While the preparation of Spatial Development Frameworks is guided by the MSA regulations, there are no specific guidelines or regulations pertaining to the preparation of a LUMS. However government has recognised the importance of land use management and the need for introducing legislation particularly in respect of Land Use Management. The detailed requirements of land use management applied at municipal level is, to some extent, being addressed nationally by the draft white paper on Spatial Planning and the National Land Use Bill (March 2001) which seek to establish land use planning as a key component of Integrated Development Plans

• The national land use bill (will) establish the framework to guide spatial planning, land use management and land development throughout the republic and requires all municipalities to prepare Land Use Schemes to regulate the use and development of land.
• The white paper on Spatial Planning and Land Use Management (2001) follows closely the Green Paper on Development and Planning. The intended outcome of the white paper is a new national law, the land use bill. The bill will replace, inter alia, the Physical Planning Acts and Development Facilitation Act. The ultimate goal is a legislative and policy framework that enables government, and especially local government, to formulate policies, plans and strategies for land-use and land development that address, confront and resolve the spatial, economic, social and environmental problems of the country.

• The White Paper on spatial planning and land use management contains the following principles that LUMS should comply with:

 Sustainability
 Equality
 Efficient
 Integration and
 Fair and good governance.

• In order to comply with legislative requirements, Planning Schemes will need to :

 Define the area of effect thereof;
 Define terminology;
 Specify development, or classes of development, which are permitted, or prohibited and any permissions, conditions, limitations or exemptions, subject to which such developments may be permitted; and
 Specify for any area or part thereof:

 floor area and coverage limitations;
 building height limits;
 building density limits;
 space limitations around buildings, including minimum building lines;
 parking standards and requirements;
 external building appearance, landscaping, overshadowing, aesthetics, and maintenance standards;
 advertising and signage standards;
 provisions which advise prospective developers of the facilities which they will be required to provide;
 moratoriums on further development where land use and servicing restrictions are severe; or,
 any other norms or standards which require compliance with, or other matters necessary for, the effective administration thereof.

• The following diagram illustrates the legislative framework informing LUMS and provides an indication of how LUMS should be integrated with other municipal planning and development legislation.



Figure 9: The legislative framework informing LUMS .






































10.4 HOW DO YOU PREPARE A LUMS?

• One of the first steps in preparing a LUMS for a municipality is considered to be the preparation of a Land Use Management Framework that shows, in broad terms, how land will be managed throughout a municipality. A Land Use Management Framework will be informed directly by the Spatial Development Framework and will show the areas covered by Planning Schemes and the broad zones that a municipality wishes to apply.

• The role of the Land Use Management Framework is to bridge the gap between the IDP and LUMS, and its format will use broad underlying zones “to inform” the preparation of Planning Schemes. The Land Use Management Framework may be used to prepare either a single Planning Scheme in the case of a small municipality or in the case of a large municipality; it might be developed into several separate Planning Schemes.

• Planning Schemes are the means of implementing statutory mechanisms in terms of which the use of land may be developed, managed and regulated. Although a single LUMS may be prepared for the whole of a municipal area, (including both urban and rural areas), LUMS makes provision for Planning Schemes to be prepared with different degrees of detail depending on the complexity of the area to which it applies. For example, at an urban or settlement level, LUMS makes provision for Planning Schemes to be prepared at an Elementary, Primary or Comprehensive level. These are all part of the same system with each drawing on the same suite of land use management mechanisms which enable a municipality to manage different sized settlements, towns or cities within its jurisdiction. A municipality will be able to draw upon a similar suite of management mechanisms to manage the different requirements of rural area. This also means that any component of the system can be upgraded as and when required without major changes.

• Planning schemes should provide the detailed management mechanisms required to put into effect the spatial policies, strategies and development objectives of the IDP and should contain:

 Policies;
 Statements of Intent;
 Districts;
 Special Zones; and
 Management Areas.

• A Planning Scheme is a statutory plan and will consist of a written document and maps. The broad contents of a Planning Scheme are as follows:

1. Introduction
2. Visions, Statements of Intent and Definitions of Zones
3. The Zones, Districts, Special Zones, Management Areas and Management Plans required for the area of applicability of the Planning Scheme, together with such Templates and Land Use Matrices as may be required to show which land uses may be permitted or prohibited
4. Land Use Matrices and Templates
5. Definitions of terminology
6. Policies and Guidelines
7. Procedures
8. Planning Scheme Maps, Management Area Overlays and Management Plans, as appropriate


• The following broad steps would be used to prepare a Planning Scheme:

• STEP 1:
Prepare a Work Plan to show how the Planning Scheme will be prepared and the level of consultation required.

• STEP 2:
The following key informants should be used to determine land use management requirements:

 The IDP and the Spatial Development Framework
 Cadastral and jurisdictional boundaries
 Different forms of land tenure
 Defined urban areas and settlements
 Geology, soils and topography
 Livelihood plans
 Current land use
 Demographics
 Development opportunities and constraints
 Economic development
 Environmental elements

• STEP 3:
From steps 1 and 2, it will be possible to determine the appropriate level of management required and the different Districts, Special Zones and Management Areas which will be needed for each particular spatial area. These will be shown spatially on a single map where possible, or on a map with overlays where necessary.

• STEP 4:
At this stage, statements of intent should be prepared for each area which prescribes how an area is to be developed in the future.

• STEP 5:
Once the Districts, Special Zones and Management Areas and the statement of intent for each area have been established, it will be possible to determine which land uses and activities are to be permitted or prohibited, and the detailed development regulations pertaining to each area. These regulatory mechanisms will be shown in a series of templates and land use matrices.

• STEP 6:
A municipality should then determine which planning and environmental policies and additional controls will be required to make the Plan clear and effective. Simple forms and applications procedures should be included to facilitate development.

It is essential that there is community consultation in the preparation of the plans. The different communities live with the result of land use management every day of their lives. They depend on the plans to provide certainty and protect their amenity. Community consultation is essential at all stages in the preparation of plans. The specific requirements for engaging communities are contained in Chapter 4 of the Municipal Systems Act.


10.5 HOW DO YOU GET APPROVAL FOR A LUMS?

• Currently the law regulating land use management is diverse. National legislation / framework on land development have not been finalised. Some provinces have tried to create one set of procedures to deal with land development and land management, some use DFA as alternative route. In provinces such as Mpumalanga that have not passed their own development and planning laws (since 1994 and the restructuring of municipalities and other spatial implications post 1994) old ordinance that used to apply (in white areas) prevail (alongside the apartheid regulations that applied to black areas).

• At present, Council can approve its own Land Use Management Systems in terms of the Ordinance. Furthermore, in terms of Section 11 of the Municipal Systems Act, the Council of the municipality exercises the executive and legislative authority of a municipality and the council takes all the decisions of the municipality subject to Section 59 being delegations.

• For approval as part of the IDP, in terms of Section 25 of the MSA: adoption of integrated development plans, each municipal council must, within a prescribed period after the start of its elected term, adopt a single, inclusive and strategic plan for the development of its municipality. This integrated development plan may be amended in terms of Section 34 of the Act and remains in force until the next elected council adopts an integrated development plan.

10.6 ROLE OF LOCAL MUNICIPALITY IN RESPECT OF LUMS

• It evidences from the above that the implementation of the LUMS is the responsibility of the local municipality and not that of the District, since land use management systems are pertinent at the very grass roots level of land management.

• However, it is strongly advocated that the local municipality does not engage in this process without the involvement of the District, since the process of preparing LUMS makes distinct provision for District participation.

• The district has a very definite role to play as co-ordinator, director, planner and co-funder, which is in line with its position as overarching authority. In effect the District should be accountable for compiling the Land Use Management Framework (LUMF) which precedes the LUMS.

• With this in mind the District should take responsibility for amongst others:
 setting of standards for the LUMS;
 supporting the local municipalities in establishing the LUMS;
 providing or assisting with required funding;
 standardization of the content of the LUMS; and
 coordinating and overseeing the local process.

• It is concluded from the foregone sections that the LUMS is the last component of a comprehensive planning process which can be illustrated as follows:





















• Clearly there is a link between the IDP, the SDF, the LUMF and the LUMS. In which case the LUMF is at district level and the LUMS at the local level. Thus, like the District SDF, which is overarching and broad serving as a directive for the local SDFs, so the LUMF is overarching and broad being directive and descriptive for the LUMS. Where the LUMS is the actual mechanism with which land is managed, the LUMF is the instruction manual to create the mechanism.

• Following from the above it is deemed that the District has to undertake the following in terms of compiling the LUMF (Note: list is not necessarily comprehensive):
 Identify all the critical areas of first intervention. Thus single out those areas where standardized LUMS are most needed;
 Determine the actual content of each level of LUMS, viz. what detail should be covered in a comprehensive LUMS versus a primary LUMS, versus an elementary LUMS;
 Determine the level of LUMS, viz. elementary, primary or comprehensive, needed for the different types of areas, viz. urban, rural, hub, satellite, etc. which constitute the municipal area;
 Define a timeframe for LUMS implementation, realizing that the LUMS can only be implemented through an incremental process because financial and human resources are scarce and the complexity of LUMS can be overwhelming especially in areas which have never been part of any form of land use management; and
 It should launch the project; assist with funding and co-ordinate the process to ensure execution and alignment.

• In accordance with the LUMF the local municipality should undertake the LUMS. Thus, it will physically have to compile the LUMS, set it up, run it, manage it and update it.

• Cognisance should be taken that preparing the LUMS will be an incremental process while maintaining and updating it will be an ongoing process. Since these activities are to be undertaken at a local level, budgetary provision must be made on an annual basis. Where shortfalls are experienced which will delay the process and or hamper District-wide progress funds should be sought at District level.

• It is in fact advisable, that the LUMF and LUMS processes be done in partnership between local and district level to ensure that a fully integrated product is created and that dual ownership is achieved.


10.7 POINTS OF DEPARTURE FROM THE SDF

• The District SDF identifies that the major urban centres are the key areas of economic growth, where infrastructure exist, thresholds are greatest to attract more activity and land uses are most diverse, economic opportunities prevail and integration is to be achieved. Of importance is that development must be facilitated and one way of achieving this is by making development easy and fast and another is by being transparent. An effective LUMS can achieve these. And since, development in all major urban centres is desirable an effective LUMS is also.

• In addition to the major urban centres, other critical areas include the key interventions, if they are spatial in nature. Thus, the major urban centres and the key interventions are first on the priority list for LUMS, and these should be done at a comprehensive level in order to be fully transparent and to facilitate development.

• Though the major urban centres may presently be governed by a town planning scheme it is suggested that the first phase of the incremental LUMS process be to standardize the content of the different schemes and to transform the existing schemes into a structured LUMS. It is accepted that a fully-fledge LUMS will take more time and funds.

• It is recognised that the process is (has to be) incremental as a boundary to boundary comprehensive LUMS is for many reasons unattainable in one shot and that a hierarchy and process of implementation must form part of the LUMF.

• In accordance with the above the short term LUMS priority areas for Pixley Ka Seme LM are:







Table 22: LUMS Priority Areas
PRIORITY AREAS FOR LUMS LOCAL SDF
Major urban centres • Volksrust
Key interventions • Daggakraal
• Wakkerstroom


10.8 CONCLUSION

• Compiling an IDP is a much more involved process than producing a single document. It is a comprehensive multi-facetted project which comprises different components with different processes. The LUMS is one component thereof, probably at the bottom end of the entire system.

• The LUMS is not alone-standing. It is dependant on the LUMF which is the overarching descriptive manual detailing the content, level, priority, timeframe, etc. of the LUMS. It is therefore the responsibility of the District Municipality to compile the LUMF, co-ordinate implementation and as far as possible financially assist the local municipalities to undertake the LUMS. Once the LUMF is in place the local municipalities should engage in compiling the LUMS, which is an incremental process and where attention should be given to the most critical areas first. In time a fully-fledge LUMS boundary to boundary will have been produced.



11. CONCLUSION

• The population of the Gert Sibande District Municipality is in the order of 900000. Generally, there are low population densities and a high economic dependency on agriculture and forestry as part of the primary sector as well as electricity supply. The economic make-up of the district provides only for limited economic beneficiation. This aspect needs to be addressed to attain economic growth in the area.

• Typical of most district in the country there are discrepancies in respect of levels of service delivery, income and education levels between the urban and rural components of the area.

• In response to the challenges noted above, and elaborated upon in the main report, the SDF has identified opportunities, in terms of both the tourism and economic sector, at certain localities. Similarly, constraints have also been noted. Amongst others, these relate to agricultural practises, mining and emissions.

• The SDF has been based on an adaptation of a spatial model. The model considers urban and rural areas as well as their connectivity. Cognisance is also taken of the peculiar economic and social characteristics, opportunities and constraints of the urban and rural components.

• The GSDM SDF is the first step in spatially representing the vision of the municipality in such a manner to guide the location of development. The next step is to elaborate upon the district SDF in a lower level of detail at the local municipality level. More specifically, areas of investment should be shown, special development areas as well as intervention areas and areas for future growth.

• Following the completion of both the district and local SDFs, a district LUMF and detailed LUMS at the local level have to be prepared. The LUMS will be informed by the district and local SDFs. A well-prepared LUMS can facilitate development as contemplated in the SDF.

• However, the successful implementation of the SDF and enforcement of a LUMS is dependent on not only enforcing legislation but also the buy-in of land owners and developers. As such, the process of preparing the LUMS is an inclusive, consultative process.


• The process of preparing the SDF and LUMF/LUMS is an incremental one. The local SDF can depict a more detailed, and focused, level of information than a district SDF. In response thereto, the LUMS defines land use scheme areas and districts at even a more detail. Such investigations could very well lead to the identification of opportunities and constraints which have an impact on potentially the whole district. Then, the necessary changes to the district SDF have to be effected.

• This district SDF should be used by all the local municipalities in preparing their local SDFs. Thereafter the district SDF should be refined in line with any significant opportunities and constraints identified at eth local level and respective LUMS processes.

• As with the preparation of review of IDPs, a SDF should also be reviewed in line with changing circumstances.


REFERENCES


1. A Local Economic Development Strategy for the Dipaleseng Municipality, May 2002, Urban Econ, Zimele Investment Enterprise Company and Seaton Thomson.

2. 2003 State of the Environment Report. Mpumalaga DACE. Nelspruit.

3. Albert Luthuli Local Municipality Integrated Development Plan 2002/2003.

4. Albert Luthuli Municipality Integrated Development Plan Revision 2004.

5. Amajuba District Municipality IDP Review, July 2003, SiVEST.

6. Amsterdam Local Council Land Development Objective, April 1999, Urban Dynamics and B Gildenhuys and Associates.

7. An Industrial Development Strategy for the Highveld Region of the Mpumalanga Province, Mpumalanga Office of the Premier.

8. Bethal Structure Plan, September 1992, Korsman & van Wyk.

9. Dipaleseng Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004.

10. Disaster Management for Gert Sibande District Municipality, Discussion document for the Local Government Summit, June 2004, District Municipality Task team.

11. Disaster Management Framework for Gert Sibande District Municipality, November 2003, Annexure A, Watees Consortium.

12. East Vaal Regional Development Strategy Status Quo Report, July 1994, Planafrica.

13. Ekurhuleni SDF 2003/2004 – information obtained telephonically from Plan Associates.

14. Gauteng Spatial Development Framework, Phase 3, 2000, APS Planafrica.

15. Gert Sibande District Municipality Revised Integrated Development Plan, Urban Dynamics.

16. Govan Mbeki Municipality Integrated Development Plan Revision 2004.

17. Govan Mbeki Spatial Planning Strategy, to guide the development of a Spatial Development Framework Document, May 2004, Physical Development and Public Works, Govan Mbeki Local Municipality.
18. Highveld Ridge Development Framework Document, December 1996, APS Planafrica.

19. Highveld Ridge Land Development Objectives / Integrated Development Plan Report, April 1999, Emendo.

20. Highveld Ridge Transitional Local Council, First Integrated Transport Plan, 1999 / 2000, Vol. 1.

21. Land Development Objectives for Piet Retief Local Council, April 1999, Urban Dynamics and B Gildenhuys and Associates.

22. Land Development Objectives, Standerton Local Council, March 1999, Urban Dynamics.

23. Leandra Transitional Local Council: Land Development Objectives, July 1999, Urban Dynamics.

24. Lekwa Municipality, Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004.

25. Mkhondo Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Urban Dynamics.

26. Mpumalanga Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment, 2003.

27. Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework, 2000, CSIR.

28. Mpumalanga Parks Board, 2002. Determining the Conservation Value of land in Mpumalanga. Eds. A.J. Emery and S.D. Williamson. Nelspruit.

29. Mpumalanga Parks Board, 2003. State of Biodiversity in Mpumalanga. Eds. M.C. Lotter and A.J. Emery. Nelspruit.

30. Mpumalanga Province, Draft Document: Towards the formulation of the Operating Licensing Strategy in Gert Sibande DM, April 2004, Annexure C, Kgatelopele Consulting Engineers.

31. Mpumalanga Provincial Growth and Development Strategy; 2005, Office of the Premier.

32. Msukaligwa Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004.

33. Nkangala District Municipality, Section 4 Operational Strategies, 4.1 Spatial Development Framework (Extract Only).

34. Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004.

35. Sasol Oil (Pty) Ltd: Secunda Heavy Vehicle Service Centre Report, April 2001, LWF Incorporated Consulting Engineers and Project Managers.
36. Spatial Development Framework for Albert Luthuli Local Municipality – PLAN ONLY.

37. Sustainable Livelihoods Development, Strategic Assessment of Standerton Region, November 2000, CSIR.

38. Tourism, extract from Pixley Ka Seme internet information.

39. Transitional Local Council Bethal IDP / LDO, Development Framework, June 1999 and July 1999, Korsman & van Wyk.
















































APPENDIX 1: DIAGRAMS













































APPENDIX 2: MAPS


















































APPENDIX 3: DOCUMENTS REVIEWED

OVERVIEW OF RELEVANT STUDIES

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

• In the last ten years government has initiated many and significant restructuring exercises, which every time led to the formulation of new government organisations or authorities left in charge of differently demarcated areas.

• For the newly demarcated areas plans were required in order to address local needs, achieve development and meet new legislative requirements.

• Consequently, since 1994 many new plans for a range of different areas have been compiled. Thus, in each document relevant information can be extracted, but it is only in the recent IDP documents that coherent local and district information is available. Even then such information is not always fully up to date or comprehensive.

• Review of existing documents is vital, even if such documents do not fully relate to the present demarcated areas, reason being that much work has been undertaken and there is no need to reinvent the wheel especially where budgets are limited. Thus, a proper review process was undertaken from all the documents supplied to the consultants.

• All relevant information was extracted to inform the status quo, assisting in understanding the area. In addition, the vision and mission statements for the municipal area were extracted from the IDP or IDP Revision document and, where available, information was extracted from an old spatial framework or spatial plans to inform the present SDF.

• Since this SDF is part and parcel of the IDP, the IDP is deemed to be the primary source of information and all other documents have been used to supplement the base information.

LIST OF DOCUMENTS REVIEWED

• At overleaf is a tabular summary of documents reviewed in the analysis and planning of the local SDF. The list is limited to the documents used for this exercise. A comprehensive list is available in the District SDF.





AREA TITLE CONTENT / APPLICATION USE
Gert Sibande DM Disaster Management Framework for Gert Sibande DM, November 2003, Annexure A Framework compiled in terms of legislative requirements to provide a coherent, transparent and inclusive policy on disaster management for the GSDM. • Information limitedly applicable to SDFs.
Gert Sibande DM East Vaal Regional Development Strategy Status Quo Report, July 1994 Status quo report for the then East Vaal Regional Services Council in preparation for a regional structure plan for the area. • The information is very old and outdated. More recent information should be obtained for inform development.
Gert Sibande DM Disaster Management for Gert Sibande DM, Discussion document for the Local Government Summit, June 2004 A slide presentation of the roles and responsibilities of disaster management in the district. • Content is introductory regarding principles, policies and budgets.
• Limited applicability to SDF.
Gert Sibande DM Mpumalanga Province, Draft Document: Towards the formulation of the Operating Licensing Strategy in Gert Sibande DM, April 2004, Annexure C Research undertaken to provide guidelines for the formulation of an operating licensing strategy for the district regarding bus and taxi services. Report focuses on bus and taxi public transport in an endeavour to streamline service delivery ensuring effective provision. • Good bus and taxi information, but limited application owing to absence of broad spectrum of traffic information which affects the entire district.
• To determine a road hierarchy more detailed status quo information is required.
Gert Sibande DM Gert Sibande DM Revised Integrated Development Plan IDP • Base information utilised
• No transport or social facilities information.
Gert Sibande DM/ relevant local areas An Industrial Development Strategy for the Highveld Region of the Mpumalanga Province Valuable economic report describing economic trends and devising strategies for future economic diversification. Critical for all SDFs. • Essential in understanding economic trends
• Economic development / diversification proposals of SDFs based on study.

Dipaleseng LM Dipaleseng Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Base information used for status quo
• Vision and mission
Dipaleseng LM/
Gert Sibande DM A Local Economic Development Strategy for the Dipaleseng Municipality, May 2002 An economic strategy for Dipaleseng to uplift the economic status of the area. Contains valuable economic and socio-economic status quo information, and provides development proposals for upliftment applicable to Dipaleseng and the rest of Gert Sibande. • Updating of status quo information
• Directing District SDF
• Directing Local SDFs
Albert Luthuli LM Albert Luthuli Municipality Integrated Development Plan Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Base information used for status quo
• Vision and mission
Albert Luthuli LM Albert Luthuli Local Municipality Integrated Development Plan 2002/2003 IDP • Base information used for status quo
Albert Luthuli LM
/ Gert Sibande DM Spatial Development Framework for Albert Luthuli Local Municipality – PLAN ONLY A plan defining development corridors, proposed business/market nodes and tourism opportunities • Plan was examined and where relevant existing proposals were refined.
Govan Mbeki Spatial Planning Strategy, to guide the development of a Spatial Development Framework Document, May 2004 Document provides a framework of principles and contains some broad based information to serve as input / guidelines for the compilation of a spatial development framework. It is concluded that the document is in fact a very broad brief of work to be undertaken. • Review of principles defined and reference to base information where it could supplement existing base documents.
Govan Mbeki LM Sasol Oil (Pty) Ltd: Secunda Heavy Vehicle Service Centre Report, April 2001 Private initiative by Sasol to investigate possible locations for a heavy vehicle service centre in the Secunda area. • Low level information, not applied at the district or municipal level.
• Status quo information could be appropriate for urban planning.
Govan Mbeki LM Highveld Ridge Development Framework Document, December 1996 A development framework for the then Highveld Ridge TLC containing status quo information and spatial development proposals for the Trichardt, Evander, Kinross, Secunda, Embalenhle and Charl Cilliers complex. • Valuable base document although somewhat outdated.
• Relevant spatial information of the urban centres in Govan Mbeki LM.
Govan Mbeki LM Highveld Ridge Land Development Objectives / Integrated Development Plan Report, April 1999 LDO / IDP for Highveld Ridge TLC, firmly founded on the Highveld Ridge Development Framework Document of Dec 1996. Contains no spatial development proposals. • Document provides status quo information for local SDF.
• Limited statistical information to usefully inform the SDF.
Govan Mbeki LM Highveld Ridge Transitional Local Council, First Integrated Transport Plan, 1999 / 2000, Vol. 1 It is a status quo research report focused on devising policies for future transportation planning. It contains information on service provision but has limited information on the spatial side of planning.
• Contains much base information of services provided i.e. busses and taxis, but limited information on infrastructure.
• Identifies need for SDF as underlying element to inform transportation planning.
• No heavy vehicle transport information.
Govan Mbeki LM Transitional Local Council Bethal IDP / LDO, Development Framework , June 1999 and July 1999 IDP / LDO • Contains base information for Bethal.
• Limited relevance for LM or DM SDFs.
Govan Mbeki LM Bethal Structure Plan, September 1992 Structure Plan • Relevant at a local urban level.
• Review of proposal.
Govan Mbeki LM Leandra Transitional Local Council: Land Development Objectives, July 1999 LDO • Valuable base information to support DM and LM SDFs, especially hierarchy of urban centres.
Govan Mbeki LM Govan Mbeki Municipality Integrated Development Plan Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Contains very limited base information.
• Where relevant base information was used
• Vision and mission
Lekwa LM Lekwa Municipality, Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Base information used for status quo
• Vision and mission
Lekwa LM Land Development Objectives, Standerton Local Council, March 1999 LDO • Information limited to Greater Standerton
• Social information used to supplement status quo in the absence of any other information
• Document used to check population statistics and trends
Lekwa LM Sustainable Livelihoods Development, Strategic assessment of Standerton Region, November 2000 Private initiative undertaken by Eskom. The study researched the political and social environment of the Greater Standerton area in order to identify potential social and political risks. • Available population statistics and trends where used to refine status quo in respect of IDP.
Mkhondo LM Mkhondo Municipality Integrated Development Plan IDP • Base information utilised
• No transportation or social facilities information.
• Vision and mission
Mkhondo LM Land Development Objectives for Piet Retief Local Council, April 1999 LDO • Contains base information but this is limited to Piet Retief.
• Cannot use information at a LM level.
Mkhondo LM Amsterdam Local Council Land Development Objective LDO • Contains base information but this is limited to Amsterdam.
• Cannot use information at a LM level.
Msukaligwa LM Msukaligwa Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Base information used for status quo
• Vision and mission
Pixley Ka Seme Tourism An assortment of sheets regarding tourism in Pixley Ka Seme including some history, accommodation detail and places of interest list. • Informative, but limited detail for inclusion in a SDF.
Pixley Ka Seme Pixley Ka Seme Local Municipality Integrated Development Plan, Revision 2004 IDP Revision • Base information used for status quo
• Vision and mission
Gert Sibande DM, Govan Mbeki LM, Dipaleseng, LM Gauteng Spatial Development Framework, Phase 3, 2000 Provincial Spatial Development Framework defining development trajectories for the province • Understanding of Gauteng’s composition and impact on the GSDM
Gert Sibande DM, Govan Mbeki LM, Albert Luthuli LM, Msukaligwa LM Mpumalanga Integrated Spatial Framework, 2000 Provincial Spatial Development Framework for the province • Extracting status quo information and reviewing spatial proposals
Gert Sibande DM, Pixley Ka Seme LM, Mkhondo LM Amajuba District Municipality IDP Review, July 2003 IDP Revision • Understanding KwaZulu-Natal’s impact on the District in respect of its spatial planning proposals
Gert Sibande DM, Govan Mbeki LM, Msukaligwa LM, Albert Luthuli LM. Nkangala District Municipality – Spatial Development Framework Extract Brief summary of spatial planning proposals for area • Understanding Nkangala District Municipality’s impact on the District in respect of its spatial planning proposals
Gert Sibande DM, Mkhondo LM, Pixley Ka Seme LM Zululand IDP – electronic extract of SDF SDF • Understanding adjoining spatial development planning proposals
Gert Sibande DM, Govan Mbeki LM, Dipaleseng LM. Sedibeng Spatial Development Framework SDF • Understanding adjoining spatial development proposals